Complementary Therapy as an Approach in Managing Occupational Stress
Occupational stress is caused by various reasons, such as, workload and long working hours. This leads to occurrence of trend in using wellness activities to treat physical and psychological illness that is known as complementary therapy, which is Yoga, Aromatherapy, Qi gong, and Islamic Medical Practices (Ruqyah). Therefore, this research offered a perspective on the use of complementary therapies as a tool in improving and maintaining mental health condition of employees located in Penang, Malaysia. Qualitative method was used where 5 complementary therapy practitioners were interviewed to identify the perceptions towards the use of complementary therapy and to identify the type of therapy that can be practiced to reduce stress, as well as, discuss the benefits of complementary therapies. It was found that complementary therapy is very beneficial as it acts as a holistic treatment, natural way of healing and more empowering, as it helps to improve employee’s mental, emotional and physical health.
Keywords: occupational stress; complementary therapy; mental health; holistic; conventional
Abuduli, M., Ezat, S., & Aljunid, S. (2011). Role of traditional and complementary medicine in universal coverage. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 11(2), 1-5. Antai-Otong, D. (2001). Creative stress management technique for self renewal. Dermatology Nursing 13 (1), 31-39.
Bock, C. B., Fava, L. J., Gaskins, R., Morrow, M. K., Williams, M. D., Jennings, E., Becker,M. B., Tremont, G., & Marcus, H. B. (2012). Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation in women. Journal of Women's Health, 21(2), 240- 248.
Cashwell, C. S., & Young, J. S. (2011). Integrating spirituality and religion into counselling. A guide to competent practice. (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Stevenson Avenue.
Choi, S. L., Tan, O. K., Teoh, A. P., & Muthuveloo, R. (2014). Investigation on the impact of job stressors on nurses in Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 10(4), 67-77.
Ching, M. S., Zakaria, A. Z., Paimin, F., & Jalalian, M. (2013). Complementary alternative medicine use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the primary care setting: A cross sectional study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(148), 1-7.
Chow, W. Y. (2011). The effects of qigong on reducing stress, anxiety andm enhancing body-mind wellbeing. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HK.
Davidson, R., Geoghegan, L., Mclaughlin, L., & Woodward, R. (2005). Psychological characteristics of patients who use complementary therapies. Psycho-oncology, 14(3),187-195.
Deshpande. C. R. (2012). A healthy way to handle workplace stress through yoga, meditation, and soothing humour. International Journal of Environmental Sciences,2(4), 2143-2154.
European Agency for Safety and Health at work renews attention on managing work-related stress [Pamphlet]. (2014). N.p. American Society of Safety Engineers.
Gura, T. S. (2002). Yoga for stress reduction and injury prevention at work. Work. 19, 3-7, .
Idris, M. I., Dollard, F. M., & Winefield, H. A. (2010). Lay theory explanations of occupational stress: the Malaysian context. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 17(2), 135-153.
Jamal, M. (2011). Job stress, job performance and organizational commitment in a multinational company: an empirical study in two countries. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(20), 20-29.
Johnson, S., Cooper, C., Cartwright, S., Donald, I., Taylor, P., & Millet, C. (2005). The experience of workrelated stress across occupations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(2) 178-187.
Koh, L. H., Ng, L. H., & Teo, H. H. (2004). A survey on knowledge, attitudes and usage of complementary and alternative medicine in Singapore. Asia Pacific Biotech, 8(23), 1266- 1270.
Manshor, A., Fontaine, R., & Chong, S. (2003). Occupational stress among managers: A Malaysian survey. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(6), 622-628. Merican, I. (2002). Traditional/ complementary medicine: The way ahead. Ministry of Health: Institute of Medical Research, 57(3).
Milligan, C. (2006). Yoga for stress management programme as a complementary alternative counselling resource in a university counselling center. Journal of College Counselling, 9.
Ministry of Health Malaysia. (2011). Traditional and complementary medicine programme im Malaysia. Retrieved from http://tcm.moh.gov.my.
Moustaka, E., & Constantinidis., C. T. (2010). Sources and effects of work-related stress in nursing. Health Science Journal, 4(4), 210- 216.
National Centre for Complementary andAlternative Medicine. (2009). Transcendental meditation helps young adults cope with stress. Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov.
Othman, K., & Sipon, S. (2012). Researching solution based on Islamic views and practice in managing financial and work place stress. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2 (8), 239-252.
Park, C. (2013). Mind-body interventions: current status and considerations for integration into clinical health psychology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 45-63.
Petchsawanga, P., & Duchon, D. (2012). Workplace spirituality, meditation and work performance. Management Department Faculty Publications, 92.
Raja, L. R. G., Oranye, N. O., Ho, S. E., Zuraida, J., & Zulkifli, S. Z. (2013). Complementary and alternative medicine use among breast cancer patients in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 13(1), 11-19.
Regus. (2013, November 22). 70% Malaysian workers see increase in stress related illnesses. The Star Online. Retrieved from http://www.thestar. com.my.
Safaria, T., Ahmad, O., & Wahab, N. A. M. (2008). Gender, academic rank, employment status, university type, and job stress among university academic staff: a comparison between Malaysia and Indonesia context. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(18), 250-261.
Traditional and Complementary Medicine Division of Ministry of Health. (2014). Traditional and complementary practices. Retrieved from http://tcm.mog.gov.my.
Watt, L., Gulati, S., Shaw, T. N., Sung, L., Dix, D., Poureslami, I., & Klassen, F. A. (2012). Perceptions about complementary and alternative medicine among Chinese immigrant parents of children with cancer. Support Care Cancer, 20(2), 253-260.
Wilson, M. A. L., White, M. K., & Hamilton, K. (2013). Predicting psychologists' intentions to integrate complementary and alternative therapies into their place. Australian Psychologist, 48(2), 149-158. World Health Organization, (2005). Mental health policies and programmes in the workplace.Geneva.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
4) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
5) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.