Vocational Education in China: Its History, Roles, Challenges and the Way Forward

  • Tian Jing Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Ellen Chung Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Margaret Lucy Gregory Universiti Teknologi MARA
Keywords: vocational education, technical and vocational education, challenges


Vocational education plays an essential role in developing diverse human talents, passing on technical skills, and promoting employment, innovation, and entrepreneurship. As a critical part of the national education system and the development of human resources, vocational education in China plays a crucial role in the development of diverse talents, the transfer of technical skills, and the promotion of employment and entrepreneurship. This paper aims to explore the history, roles, challenges, and the way forward for vocational education in China. It is found that vocational education in China has gone through a series of name changes before settling on its current nomenclature. Although vocational education is essential to complement general academic education to build a nation, it faces an uphill battle to gain the same status and recognition bestowed on general education. These challenges include curriculum design, poor linkages with industries, public perception, and other structural issues. This paper also discusses how to overcome these challenges to improve vocational education in China.


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How to Cite
Jing, T., Chung, E., & Gregory, M. L. (2022). Vocational Education in China: Its History, Roles, Challenges and the Way Forward. Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 8(1), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.33736/jcshd.4497.2022