Attitude and Perceived Social Norms Towards Risk-taking Behaviors among Male University Students in Malaysia
This study was conducted to investigate the attitudes and perceived social norms regarding risk behaviours as well as to ascertain how social context influences their likelihood to adhere to perceived social norms. The study adopted a qualitative methodology with a phenomenological design. The study applied purposive and snowballing sampling methods, and in-depth interviews were conducted among six participants. Findings indicated that students' attitudes towards risk-taking behaviours were mainly positive due to the perception that they knew their limits and were able to restrain their use for social and recreational purposes. Those with negative attitudes had negative experiences due to obsessive engagement in the behaviour. This study suggests the importance of having an open discussion surrounding risk-taking behaviours and the need to educate university students and understand the thought process regarding their attitudes towards risk-taking behaviours.
Abdullah, A. S. M., Fielding, R., & Hedley, A. J. (2003). Understanding sexual risk taking behaviour in Hong Kong university students: A health promotion perspective. Preventive Medicine, 37(4), 311-318.
Abelman, D. D. (2017). Mitigating risks of students' use of study drugs through understanding motivations for use and applying harm reduction theory: a literature review. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(1), 1-7.
Arnett, J. (1994). Sensation seeking: A new conceptualisation and a new scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 16(2), 289-296.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480.
Auerbach, R. P., Mortier, P., Bruffaerts, R., Alonso, J., Benjet, C., Cuijpers, P., ... & Murray, E. (2018). WHO (World Health Organization) World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project: Prevalence and distribution of mental disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127(7), 623-638.
Awang, H., Wong, L. P., Jani, R., & Low, W. Y. (2014). Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths. Journal of Biosocial Science, 46(2), 214-224.
Ayalew Tegegne, W. (2020). The prevalence and causes of unwanted pregnancy among Woldia university undergraduate female students: Implications for psychosocial intervention. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 0(0), 1-5.
Beck, K. H., Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O'Grady, K. E., & Wish, E. D. (2008). Social context of drinking and alcohol problems among college students. American Journal of Health Behaviour, 32(4), 420-430.
Berkowitz, A. D. (2004). The social norms approach Theory, research, and annotated bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.alanberkowitz.com/articles/social_norms.pdf
Bharati, A. S., Matcheswalla, Y. A., Umate, M. S., & Jaiswal, S. (2017). Mechanism of coping in patients of alcohol dependence and its correlation with anxiety, depressive symptoms. International Journal of Advances in Medicine, 4(2), 508-513.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Calafat, A., García, F., Juan, M., Becoña, E., & Fernández-Hermida, J. R. (2014). Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 138(3), 185-192.
Cavazos-Rehg, P. A., Krauss, M., Fisher, S. L., Salyer, P., Grucza, R. A., & Bierut, L. J. (2015). Twitter chatter about marijuana. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(2), 139-145.
Chen, Y., & Feeley, T. H. (2015). Predicting binge drinking in college students: Rational beliefs, stress, or loneliness? Journal of Drug Education, 45(4), 133-155.
Connor, J., Gray, A., & Kypri, K. (2010). Drinking history, current drinking and problematic sexual experiences among university students. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34(5), 487-494.
Conroy, D. A., Kurth, M. E., Strong, D. R., Brower, K. J., & Stein, M. D. (2016). Marijuana use patterns and sleep among community-based young adults. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 35(2), 135-143.
Cooper, M. L. (2002). Alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among college students and youth: evaluating the evidence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, (14), 101-117.
Criss, S., Rodriguez, D., & Goldman, R. E. (2016). The social context of substance use and perceived risk among Rhode Island urban minority adolescents. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(1), 176-193.
Das, J K., Salam, R. A., Arshad, A., Finkelstein, Y., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2016). Interventions for adolescent substance abuse: an overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(4), 61-75.
Davoren, M. P., Cronin, M., Perry, I. J., & O'Connor, K. (2016). Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy. BMJ open, 6(11).
Deliens, T., Clarys, P., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Deforche, B. (2014). Erratum to: weight, socio-demographics, and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in first year university students. Nutrition Journal, 13(1), 1-3.
Digdon, N., & Landry, K. (2013). University students' motives for drinking alcohol are related to evening preference, poor sleep, and ways of coping with stress. Biological Rhythm Research, 44(1), 1-11.
Duell,N., Steinberg, L., Chein, J., Al-Hassan, S. M., Bacchini, D., Lei, C., ... & Lansford, J. E. (2016). Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model.Developmental Psychology, 52(10), 1593-1605.
Ekpenong, N. S., & Aakpege, N. Y. (2014). Alcohol consumption pattern and risky behaviour: A study of University of Port Harcourt. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(3), 1-8.
Emmel, N. (2015). Themes, variables, and the limits to calculating sample size in qualitative research: A response to Fugard and Potts. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), 685-686.
Erena, G., & Kerbo, A. A. (2015). Unwanted pregnancy and associated factors among female students of Madawalabu University Bale Zone, Oromia Region southeast, Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health, 3(1), 50-55.
Erevik, E. K., Pallesen, S., Vedaa, Ø., Andreassen, C. S., & Torsheim, T. (2017). Alcohol use among Norwegian students: Demographics, personality and psychological health correlates of drinking patterns. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 34(5), 415-429.
Estevez, A. G., Roche, J. R., Saborit, A. R., Espinosa, A. H., & Rodriguez, D. L. (2019). Relationship between social skills and alcohol consumption. International Journal of Health Sciences, 3(1), 1-8.
Evans-Polce, R., Lanza, S., & Maggs, J. (2016). Heterogeneity of alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use behaviours in US college students: A latent class analysis. Addictive behaviours, 53(10), 80-85.
Ghaljaie, F., Naderifar, M., & Goli, H. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 14(3), 1-4.
Heradstveit, O., Skogen, J. C., Edland-Gryt, M., Hesse, M., Vallentin-Holbech, L., Lønning, K. J., & Sivertsen, B. (2020). Self-reported illicit drug use among Norwegian university and college students. associations with age, gender, and geography. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(3), 1-11.
Hogg, M. A., & Reid, S. A. (2006). Social identity, self-categorisation, and the communication of group norms. Communication Theory, 16(1), 7-30.
Holloway, K. R., Bennett, T. H., Parry, O., & Gorden, C. (2014). Characteristics and consequences of prescription drug misuse among university students in the United Kingdom. Journal of Substance Use, 19(2), 156-163.
Hoyland, M. A., Rowatt, W. C., & Latendresse, S. J. (2016). Prior delinquency and depression differentially predict conditional associations between discrete patterns of adolescent religiosity and adult alcohol use patterns. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 10(4), 1-15.
Hudson, A., Thompson, K., MacNevin, P. D., Ivany, M., Teehan, M., Stuart, H., & Stewart, S. H. (2018). University students' perceptions of links between substance use and mental health: a qualitative focus group study. Emerging Adulthood, 6(6), 399-410.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A.,Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2016). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2015: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.
Kenney, S. R., Ott, M., Meisel, M. K., & Barnett, N. P. (2017). Alcohol perceptions and behavior in a residential peer social network. Addictive Behaviors, 64(5), 143-147.
Lee, C. M., Geisner, I. M., Patrick, M. E., & Neighbors, C. (2010). The social norms of alcohol-related negative consequences. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24(2), 342-348.
Lopez-Quintero, C., de los Cobos, J. P., Hasin, D. S., Okuda, M., Wang, S., Grant, B. F., & Blanco, C. (2011). Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(2), 120-130.
Lyons, A. C., Goodwin, I., McCreanor, T., & Griffin, C. (2015). Social networking and young adults' drinking practices: Innovative qualitative methods for health behavior research. Health Psychology, 34(4), 293-302.
Makanjuola, A. B., Daramola, T. O., & Obembe, A. O. (2007). Psychoactive substance use among medical students in a Nigerian university. World Psychiatry, 6(2), 112-114. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219911/
Maričić, J., Sučić, I., & Šakić, V. (2013). Risk Perception Related To (Il) licit Substance Use and Attitudes Towards Its' Use and Legalization-the Role of Age, Gender and Substance Use. Društvena istraživanja: časopis za opća društvena pitanja, 22(4), 579-599.
Marshall, B., Cardon, P., Poddar, A., & Fontenot, R. (2013). Does sample size matter in qualitative research? A review of qualitative interviews in IS research. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54(1), 11-22.
Mehrabi, D., Tamam, E., Bolong, J., & Hasan, H. (2016). A rapid review of the literature on HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination studies in Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 24(2), 701-720.
Mesyuarat kedua, penggal pertama parlimen keempat belas. (2018). Menyatakan statistik kemalangan maut yang melibatkan pemandu mabuk. Retrieved from https://www.parlimen.gov.my/files/jindex/pdf/JWP%20DR%20131118.pdf
Moore, G. F., Rothwell, H., & Segrott, J. (2010). An exploratory study of the relationship between parental attitudes and behaviour and young people's consumption of alcohol. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 5(1), 6.
Moradmand-Badie, B., Mwanri, L., Mirzazadeh, A., Moyedi-Nia, S., Rasoulinejad, M., & Macdougall, C. (2020). Concerning unprotected sex and illicit substance use among Iranian university students. Journal of International Translational Medicine, 8(1), 1-7.
Moyle, L., & Coomber, R. (2019). Student transitions into drug supply: exploring the university as a 'risk environment.' Journal of Youth Studies, 22(5), 642-657.529863
Myrtveit, S. M., Askeland, K. G., Knudsen, A. K., Knapstad, M., Olsen, R., Nedregård, T., & Skogen, J. C. (2016). Risky drinking among Norwegian students: Associations with participation in the introductory week, academic performance and alcohol-related attitudes. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 33(4), 361-380.
National Anti-Drug Agency. (2013). Laporan dadah bulan Disember. Kajang: Ministry of Home Affairs, policy, planning and research department (2013) Retrieved from http://www.adk.gov.my/html/laporandadah/2013/Laporan%20Dadah%20Bulan%20Disember%202013.pdf
Neighbors, C., Lindgren, K. P., Knee, C. R., Fossos, N., & DiBello, A. (2011). The influence of confidence on associations among personal attitudes, perceived injunctive norms, and alcohol consumption. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(4), 714.
O'Brien, L., Albert, D., Chein, J., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Adolescents prefer more immediate rewards when in the presence of their peers. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(4), 747-753.
Olsson, C. A., Coffey, C., Toumbourou, J. W., Bond, L., Thomas, L., & Patton, G. (2003). Family risk factors for cannabis use: a population‐based survey of Australian secondary school students. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22(2), 143-152.
Peltzer, K., Pengpid, S., & Tiembre, I. (2013). Mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among university students in Ivory Coast. Annals of General Psychiatry, 12(1), 1-8.
Razali, M. M. S. M. (2007). The relationship between the age of onset for delinquent behaviour and chronic drug abuse among adolescents. Jurnal Antidadah Malaysia, 2, 97-110.
Rezahosseini, O., Roohbakhsh, A., Tavakolian, V., & Assar, S. (2014). Drug abuse among university students of Rafsanjan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 8(2), 81.
Rhodes, T. (2009) Risk environments and drug harms: a social science for harm reduction approach. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20(3), 193-201.
Sikkema, K. J., Watt, M. H., Meade, C. S., Ranby, K. W., Kalichman, S. C., Skinner, D., & Pieterse, D. (2011). Mental health and HIV sexual risk behavior among patrons of alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 57(3), 230.
Skidmore, C. R., Kaufman, E. A., & Crowell, S. E. (2016). Substance use among college students. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 25(4), 735-753.
Soleymani, S., Rahman, H. A., Lekhraj, R., Zulkefli, N. A. M., & Matinnia, N. (2015). A cross-sectional study to explore postgraduate students' understanding of and beliefs about sexual and reproductive health in a public university, Malaysia. Reproductive Health, 12(1), 1-7.
Sommers, A. R., & Sundararaman, R. (2007, April). Alcohol use among youth. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Retrieved from https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820867/m1/1/
Staff, J., Greene, K. M., Maggs, J. L., & Schoon, I. (2014). Family transitions and changes in drinking from adolescence through mid‐life. Addiction, 109(2), 227-236.
Steinberg L (2017). Adolescent brain science and juvenile justice policymaking. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 23(4), 410-420.
Tang, A. (2019). Over 1,000 baby-dumping cases from 2010 to May 2019, 64% died. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2019/08/03/over-1-000-baby-dumping-cases-from-2010-to-may-2019-65-died
Tavolacci, M. P., Ladner, J., Grigioni, S., Richard, L., Villet, H., & Dechelotte, P. (2013). Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: A cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009-2011. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1-8.
Verster, J. C., Kuerten, Y., Olivier, B., & Van Laar, M. W. (2010). The ACID-survey: methodology and design of an online survey to access alcohol and recreational cocaine use and its consequences for traffic safety. The Open Addiction Journal, 7(3), 24-31.
Vrecko, S. (2013). Just how cognitive is "cognitive enhancement"? On the significance of emotions in university students' experiences with study drugs. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(1), 4-12.
Wicker, A. W. (1969). Attitudes versus actions: The relationship of verbal and overt behavioural responses to attitude objects. Journal of Social Issues, 25(4), 41-78.
Willig, C. (2013). Introducing qualitative research in psychology. McGraw-hill Education (UK).
Willis, E., Adams, R., & Keene, J. (2019). If Everyone Is Doing It, It Must Be Safe: College Students' Development of Attitudes toward Poly-Substance Use. Substance Use and Misuse, 54(11), 1886-1893.
World Health Organization. (2011). Global status report on alcohol and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/msbgsruprofiles.pdf
Yi, S., Peltzer, K., Pengpid, S., & Susilowati, I. H. (2017). Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN). Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 12(1), 1-7.
Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
4) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
5) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.