Social Support, Resilience, and Happiness in Response To COVID-19
In dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals are having difficulties in coping with stress and enhancing their happiness due to the lack of proper social support. The phenomenon is highly alarming as the mental health issues of Malaysians begin to surface during the period of adversity. The study aims to investigate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between social support and happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 104 Malaysian adults participated in the study through a convenience sampling method. They completed an online survey which measured levels of social support, resilience, and happiness. A Pearson correlation analysis showed that social support and resilience were positively associated with happiness. Besides that, resilience was evidenced as a partial mediator on the association between social support and happiness. The study concluded that individuals with a higher level of social support showed a higher level of resilience which eventually led to a higher level of happiness. In facing adversity, Malaysian adults with poor social support should improve their resiliency to boost their happiness.
Aboalshamat, K. T., Alsiyud, A. O., Al Sayed, R. A., Alreddadi, R. S., Faqiehi, S. S., &
Almehmadi, S. A. (2018). The relationship between resilience, happiness, and life satisfaction in
dental and medical students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 21(8),
Azuddin, A. (2020, April 28). MCO and mental well-being: Home sweet home? The Centre.
Boo, M. C., Yen, S. H., & Lim, H. E. (2016). A Note on happiness and life satisfaction in Malaysia.
Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 53(2), 261–277. https://mjes.um.edu.my/article/view/2772
Brailovskaia, J., Schönfeld, P., Kochetkov, Y., & Margraf, J. (2019). What does migration mean
to us? USA and Russia: Relationship between migration, resilience, social support, happiness, life
satisfaction, depression, anxiety and stress. Current Psychology, 38, 421–431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9627-3
Bum, C.-H., & Jeon, I.-K. (2016). Structural relationships between students' social support and
self-esteem, depression, and happiness. Social Behavior and Personality: An International
Journal, 44(11), 1761–1774. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2016.44.11.1761
Cummins, R. A., & Wooden, M. (2013). Personal resilience in times of crisis: The implications of
SWB homeostasis and set points. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(1), 223–235.
Dong, X., Li, G., Liu, C., Kong, L., Fang, Y., Kang, X., & Li, P. (2017). The mediating role of
resilience in the relationship between social support and posttraumatic growth among colorectal
cancer survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies: A structural equation model analysis.
European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 29, 47–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2017.04.007
Faircloth, A. L. (2017). Resilience as a mediator of the relationship between negative life events
and psychological well-being. [Doctoral dissertation, Georgia Southern University]. Electronic
Theses and Dissertations. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/etd/1373
Goldman, A. H. (2016). Happiness is an emotion. The Journal of Ethics, 21(1), 1–16.
Gomez, M., Vincent, A., & Toussain, L. L. (2013). Correlates of resilience in adolescents and
adults. International Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health, 1, 18–24.
Graham, C. (2016). Amitai Etzioni’s critique of happiness. Society, 53(3), 287–288.
Hsu, H.-C., & Chang, W.-C. (2015). Social connections and happiness among the elder population
of Taiwan. Aging & Mental Health, 19(12), 1131–1137.
Jaques, N., Taylor, S., Azaria, A., Ghandeharioun, A., Sano, A., & Picard, R. (2015). Predicting
students’ happiness from physiology, phone, mobility, and behavioral data. 2015 International
Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII). 222–228.
Jaufalaily, N., & Himam, F. (2017). Resilience as a mediator of the relationship between
forgiveness and happiness among college students. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal,
(3), 121–127. https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v32i3.626
Kalka, D., & Lockiewicz, M. (2018). Happiness, life satisfaction, resiliency and social support in
students with dyslexia. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 65(5). 1–
Karim, M. A. (2020, April 8). Handling students' mental health during MCO. New Straits Times.
Koya, Z. (2020, April 10). MCO extended until April 28, PM announces (updated). The Star.
Lakey, B., & Orehek, E. (2011). Relational regulation theory: A new approach to explain the link
between perceived social support and mental health. Psychological Review, 118(3), 482–495.
Lee, D. S., & Padilla, A. M. (2015). Predicting South Korean university students’ happiness
through social support and efficacy beliefs. International Journal for the Advancement of
Counselling, 38(1), 48–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-015-9255-2
Lower, K. E. (2014). Understanding resilience and happiness among college students. [Master’s
thesis, Middle Tennessee State University]. JEWLScholar@MTSU Repository.
Lü, W., Wang, Z., Liu, Y., & Zhang, H. (2014). Resilience as a mediator between extraversion,
neuroticism and happiness, PA and NA. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 128–133.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary
reliability and construct validation. Social indicators research, 46(2), 137–155.
Martin, P., Lee, J., & Gilligan, M. (2019). Resilience, adapting to change, and healthy aging. In P.
P. Coll (Ed.), Healthy Aging: A Complete Guide to Clinical Management (pp. 329–334). Springer.
Mo, P. K. H., Lau, J. T. F., Yu, X., & Gu, J. (2014). The role of social support on resilience,
posttraumatic growth, hopelessness, and depression among children of HIV-infected parents in
mainland China. AIDS Care, 26(12), 1526–1533. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2014.923810
Narayanan, S. S., & Cheang, A. W. O. (2016). The influence of perceived social support and selfefficacy on resilience among first year Malaysian. Kajian Malaysia, 34(2), 1-23.
Papadopoulos, K., Papakonstantinou, D., Koutsoklenis, A., Koustriava, E., & Kouderi, V. (2015).
Social support, social networks, and happiness of individuals with visual impairments.
Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 58(4), 240–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/0034355214535471
Phillips, J., De Freitas, J., Mott, C., Gruber, J., & Knobe, J. (2017). True happiness: The role of
morality in the folk concept of happiness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(2),
Shi, M., Wang, X., Bian, Y., & Wang, L. (2015). The mediating role of resilience in the
relationship between stress and life satisfaction among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional
study. BMC Medical Education, 15(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0297-2
Sippel, L. M., Pietrzak, R. H., Charney, D. S., Mayes, L. C., & Southwick, S. M. (2015). How
does social support enhance resilience in the trauma-exposed individual? Ecology and Society,
(4). 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5751/es-07832-200410
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The Brief
Resilience Scale: Assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral
Medicine, 15(3), 194–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705500802222972
Smith, J. L., & Hollinger-Smith, L. (2014). Savoring, resilience, and psychological well-being in
older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 19(3), 192–200.
Southwick, S. M., Sippel, L., Krystal, J., Charney, D., Mayes, L., & Pietrzak, R. (2016). Why are
some individuals more resilient than others: the role of social support. World Psychiatry, 15(1),
Sundarasen, S., Chinna, K., Kamaludin, K., Nurunnabi, M., Baloch, G. M., Khoshaim, H. B.,
Hossain, S. F. A., & Sukayt, A. (2020). Psychological impact of COVID-19 and lockdown among
university students in Malaysia: Implications and policy recommendations. International Journal
of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176206
Tan, C.-S., Krishnan, S. A., & Lee, Q.-W. (2016). The role of self-esteem and social support in
the relationship between extraversion and happiness: A serial mediation model. Current
Psychology, 36(3), 556–564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9444-0
Thompson, G., Mcbride, R. B., Hosford, C. C., & Halaas, G. (2016). Resilience among medical
students: The role of coping style and social support. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 28(2),
Wilks, S. E., & Spivey, C. A. (2010). Resilience in undergraduate social work students: Social
support and adjustment to academic stress. Social Work Education, 29(3), 276–288.
Yildirim, M. (2019). Mediating role of resilience in the relationships between fear of happiness
and affect balance, satisfaction with life, and flourishing. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 15(2),
Yildirim, M., & Belem. H. (2019). The role of resilience in the relationships between externality
of happiness and subjective well-being and flourishing: A structural equation model approach.
Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 3(1), 62–76.
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G. & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale
of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30–41.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.