The Relationship between Flexible Working Arrangements and Quality of Work Life among Academicians in a Selected Public Institution of Higher Learning in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

  • Diyanna Nurqistyna Ariffin
  • Nur Fatihah Abdullah Bandar
  • Surena Sabil
  • Samsiah Jayos
  • Mazdan Ali Amaran
  • Rozita Hamdan


This study aims to determine the relationship between working arrangements and quality of work life (QWL) among academicians in a selected public institution of higher learning in Kuching, Sarawak. A survey methodology was used in this study. This research involves the utilization of questionnaire which was administered among one-hundred and fifty (151) academicians currently working in a selected public institution in Kuching, Sarawak. The relationship between flexible working arrangements and quality of work life was analyzed using the Pearson’s Correlation analysis test. The results of this study revealed that there is a significant relationship between long working arrangement and flexible working arrangements with QWL. Hence, if organizations are concerned about developing their human resources and gaining a competitive advantage in the marketplace, it is necessary that they attend to one of their most precious assets, namely, their human resources by practicing flexible working arrangements.

Keywords: working arrangements; quality of work life (QWL); flexible working arrangement (FWA)


Adhikari, D. R., & Gautam, D. K. (2010). Labor legislations for improving quality of work life in Nepal. International Journal of Law and Management, 52(1), 40–53.

Afsar, S. T. (2014). Impact of the quality of work-life on organizational commitment : A comparative study on

academicians working for state and foundation. International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(4), 124–152.

Ahmad, A. R., Idris, M. T. M., & Hashim, M. H. (2013). A study of flexible working hours and motivation.

Asian Social Science, 9(3), 208– 215.

Almalki, J.M., Gerald, F.G., & Clark, M (2012). Quality of work life among primary health care nurses & the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: a crosss-sectional study. Human Resources for Health, 10(30), 1-13.

Atkinson, C., & Hall, L. (2013). Flexible working and happiness in the NHS. Employee Relations, 33(2),


Battu, N., & Chakravarthy, G. K. (2014). Quality of work life of nurses and

paramedical staff in hospitals. International Journal of Business and Administration Research Review, 2(4), 200–207.

Behzad, I., Arezo, K., & Mohammadi, N. (2014). Association between quality of work life and occupational

stresses in personnel of social security organization in Hamadan province , IR Iran. E3 Journal of Medical Research, 3(4), 42–45.

Bong, K. (2015, May 1). Most Malaysian in favour of work-life balance. Retrieved from http://www. most-malaysians-in-favour-ofwork-life-balance/

Brooks, B.A., &Anderson, M.A. (2004): Nursing work life in acute care. J Nurs Care Qual, 19(3), 269–275.

Brunelle, E. (2013). Virtuality in work arrangements and affective organizational commitment. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(2), 56–62.

Fiksenbaum, L., Jeng, W., Koyuncu, M., & Burke, R. J. (2010). Work hours, work intensity, satisfactions and

psychological well-being among hotel managers in China. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 17(1), 79–93.

Gayathiri, R., & Ramakrishnan, L. (2013). Quality of work life - Linkage with job satisfaction and performance. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(1), 1–8.

Haines III, V. Y., Marchand, A., Genin, E., & Rousseau, V. (2012). A balanced view of long work hours. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 5(2), 104–119.

Jayakumar, A., & Kalaiselvi, K. (2012). Quality of work life-An overview. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 1(10), 140–151.

Kaighobadi, S., Esteghlal, A., & Serajod- din, M. (2014). The relationship between quality of work life and

performance of the managers of SMEs of Shiraz Industrial Town : Case study in Iran. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(23), 220–228.

Kattenbach, R., Demerouti, E., & Nachreiner, F. (2010). Flexible working times: effects on employees’

exhaustion, work-nonwork conflict and job performance. Career Development International, 15(3), 279–295.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(1), 607–610.

Lewis, S., & Humbert, A. L. (2010). Discourse or reality?: “Work-life balance”, flexible working policies and the gendered organization. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 29(3), 239–254.

Lu, L. (2011). Working hours and personal preference among Taiwanese employees. International Journal of

Workplace Health Management, 4(3), 244–256.

Nair, G. S. S. (2013). A study on the effect of quality of work life (QWL) on organizational citizenship behavious (OCB) - With special reference to college teachers in Thrissur District, Kerala. Integral Review - A Journal of Management, 6(1),


Ogbonna, E., & Harris, L. C. (2004). Work intensification and emotional labour among UK university lecturers. Organization Studies, 25(7), 1185-1203.

Rudolf, R. (2013). Work shorter, be happier? Longitudinal evidence from the Korean five-day working policy. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1(1), 1–25.

S.D.Geet, A.D.Deshpande., & Asmita A.D. (2009). Human resource Management. Mumbai, Maharashtra, Nirali


Salehi, P., Mohd Rasdi, R., & Ahmad, A.(2014). Personal and environmental predictors of academics’ workto-family

enrichment at research

universities. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(2), 379-388.

Shagvaliyeva, S., & Yazdanifard, R. (2014). Impact of flexible working

hours on work-life balance. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 4(1), 20–23.

Sinha, C. (2012). Factors affecting quality of work life: Empirical evidence

from Indian organizations. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(11), 31–40.

Siti Aisyah, Azizah, Roziana, Ishak, Hamidah & Siti Khadijah (2012).

Impact of work-related stress on well-being among academician

in Malaysian research university. 2012 International Conference on

Education and Management Innovation, 30(1), 37–41.

Tabassum, A., Rahman, T., & Kursia, J. (2011). Quality of work life among male and female employees of private commercial banks in Bangladesh. International Journal of Economics and Management, 5(1),


Uchida, M., Kaneko, M., & Kawa, S. (2014). Effects of personality on overtime work : A cross-sectional pilot study among Japanese whitecollar workers. BMC Research Notes, 7(1), 180.

Yeo, R. K., & Li, J. (2013). In pursuit of learning : Sensemaking the quality of work life. European Journal of Training and Development, 37(2), 136–60.

How to Cite
Ariffin, D. N., Abdullah Bandar, N. F., Sabil, S., Jayos, S., Amaran, M. A., & Hamdan, R. (2016). The Relationship between Flexible Working Arrangements and Quality of Work Life among Academicians in a Selected Public Institution of Higher Learning in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 1(2), 46-55.