Preferred Leadership Traits by Employees: A case study in Telecommunication Organization

  • Maizan, C UNIMAS
  • Florianna, L. M. UNIMAS
  • Hamidi, H. UNIMAS


Leaders affect employees’ performance in the organization by their leadership style, which is dependent to the degree of favor by their followers. It is vital for the organization to identify the most effective leadership styles which will boost performance in the organization. This research studied the type of leadership trait most preferred in the telecommunication sector. This qualitative study used the Full Range Leadership Model to identify and suggest the preferred traits of a leader. The sampling method used was purposive.  Interview guides were used as the research tool. A total of six (6) informants were interviewed. The results showed transformational leadership style is the most preferred by all the informants as the employees found that the traits of the transformational leader bring more positive impacts on their work performance.


Keywords: Leadership traits; Transformational leadership; Telecommunication sector; Full-range Leadership Model; Employees performance.


Aiken, L. H., Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M., Sochalski, J., & Silber, J. H. (2002). Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. Journal of American Medical Association, 288(16), 1987-1993

Al-Khajeh, E, H. (2018). Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance.Journal of Human Resources Management Research, Vol. 2018 (2018), Article ID 687849. DOI: 10.5171/2018.687849

Asrar-ul-Haq, M., & Kuchinke, K., P. (2016). Impact of leadership styles on employees' attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks. Future Business Journal, 54-64.

Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Sage.

Avolio, B, J., Walumbwa, F. O. & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual review of psychology, 421-449.

Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2009). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. Simon and Schuster.

Boamah, S, A., Laschinger, H, K, S., Wong, C., & Clarke, S. (2017). Effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and patient safety outcomes. Nursing Outlook.

Brownell, J. 2010. Leadership in the Service of Hospitality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51, 363-378.

Clark, R. A., Hartline, M. D., & Jones, K. C. (2009). The effects of leadership style on hotel employees' commitment to service quality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50 (2), 209-231.

Flaherty, K. E., Mowen, J. C., Brown, T. J., & Marshall, G. W. (2009). Leadership propensity and sales performance among sales personnel and managers in a specialty retail store setting. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29 (1), 43-59.

Gadirajurrett, H., Srinivasan, R., Stevens, J., & Jeena, N. (2018). Impact of Leadership on Team's Performance.

Henrickson, S., Yule, S., Flin, R. (2010). A preliminary investigation of surgeon's leadership in the operating room. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. vol. 54. 2010:867e871.

Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (3), 474-487.

Hughes, Tawney A., "Idealized, Inspirational, and Intellectual Leaders in the Social Sector: Transformational Leadership and the Kravis Prize" (2014). CMC Senior Theses. Paper 906.

Iqbal, N., Anwar, S., & Haider, N. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5(5), 1-6. doi:10.4172/2223-5833.1000146

Jimenez, A., Bueno, D, C., Galangue, C, S., & Matriano, E, A. (2017). Improving Fast Food Chain Operation through Effective Supervisory Leadership, 10th International Conference on Arts, Social Sciences, Humanities and Interdisciplinary Studies (ASSHIS-17), Manila, Philippines: Research and Publication Office of Columban College, Inc., Olongapo City. Retrieved from siteadmin/upload/UH1217403.pdf.

Keskes, I. (2014). Relationship between leadership styles and dimensions of employee organizational commitment: A critical review and discussion of future directions. Intangible Capital, 10(1), 26-51.

Lok, P., & Crawford, J. (2004). The effect of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment: A cross-national comparison. Journal of Management Development, 23 (4), 321-338.

McCann, J., & Sparks, B. (2019). The effects of leadership styles on innovative work behavior and the role of locus of control in the manufacturing environment. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 19(1), 79-94. Retrieved from https://search.proquest. com/docview/2211266361?accountid=40705

Mintzberg, H. (2010). Shifting the trajectory of civilization. Oxford Leadership Journal, 1(2). Narayana, A. (2017). A Critical Review of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance. American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 2(5), 72-76.

Padash, F., & Golparvar, M. (2010). The relationship between ethics-oriented leadership with an internal motivation of the staff's innovation and creativity. The seasonal journal of ethics in sciences and technology, 5(1-2), 103-110.

Puni, A., Mohammed, I., & Asamoah, E. (2018). Transformational leadership and job satisfaction: the moderating effect of contingent reward. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(4), 522-537.

Sa'adatu, S. L. (2013). Relationship between Demographic Factors and the Performance of Teacher Educators. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(15), 9

Shafie, B., Baghersalimi, S., & Barghi, V. (2013) The Relationship Between Leadership Style and Employee Performance. Singaporean Journal of Business Economics, And Management Studies, 2(5), 21.

Supendy, R., Margono, S., Eka, A.T., Surachman. (2012). Pengaruh Kepemimpinan terhadap Motivasi dan Kinerja Karyawan serta Implikasinya terhadap Kepuasan Kerja (Studi Gita and Yuniawan. Jurnal Studi Manajemen & Organisasi, 10(2), 161-170. ISSN: 1693 -5241.

Testa, M. R. (2002). Leadership dyads in the cruise industry: the impact of cultural congruency. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 425-441.

Wang, G., Oh, I, S., & Courtright, S, H. (2011). Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group & Organization Management, 36(2), 223-270.

Walumbwa, F, O., Mayer, D, M., Wang, P., Wang, H., Workman, K., & Christensen, A, L. (2011). Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Retrieved (December 1, 2018), from Cornell University, School of Hotel Administration site: http://scholarship.

Xu, G. Y., & Wang, Z, S. (2008). The impact of transformational leadership style on organizational performance: The intermediary effects of leader-member exchange. Long Beach, CA, USA, IEEE Xplore, pp. 1090-1097.

Yıldız, S., & Karakaş, A. (2012), Defining methods and criteria for measuring business performance: a comparative research between the literature in Turkey and foreign, Procedia. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58 (2012), 1091 - 1102

How to Cite
Maizan, C, Florianna, L. M., & Hamidi, H. (2019). Preferred Leadership Traits by Employees: A case study in Telecommunication Organization . Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 5(2), 53-65.