Antecedent Factors of Self-Directed Learning in the Workplace: A Case Study in a Private Organization in Indonesia
Self-directed learning (SDL) is becoming a prominent issue discussed in the workplace learning topic. Each of the employees needs to be aware that organizations need people who do not only believe the importance of learning but they must have initiative and capability to learn effectively. This study aims to examine the antecedent factor of the emergence of SDL in the workplace. This study using qualitative research design, particularly case study approach conducted in a prominent motorcycle-manufacturing company in Indonesia that intentionally set the organizational direction toward a learning organization. A total of thirty staff and managers were purposively selected and interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The Data gathered were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Findings indicate three factors as the antecedent to the emergence of SDL in the workplace, namely: personal factors, organizational factors, and family support. Discussion and recommendations based on research findings will be explained later.
Keywords: Self-Directed learning, Workplace learning, Organizational learning
Artis, A. B., & Harris, E. G. (2007). Self-directed learning and sales force performance: An integrated framework. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(1), 9-24.
Bates, R., & Khasawneh, S. (2005). Organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate and perceived innovation in Jordanian organizations. International Journal of Training and Development, 9(2), 96-109.
Brookfield, S. D. (1986). Understanding and facilitating adult learning. A comprehensive analysis of principles and effective practices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brookfield, S. D. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4), 56-68.
Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-direction for lifelong learning. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Cho, D. Y., & Kwon, D. B. (2005). Self-directed learning readiness as an antecedent of organizational commitment: a Korean study. International Journal of Training and Development, 9(2).
Chou, P. N. (2012). Effect of students’ self-directed learning abilities on online learning outcomes: two exploratory experiments in electronic engineering. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2, 172-179.
Cranton, P. (1996). Professional development as transformative learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Fisher, M., & King, J. (2010). The self-directed learning readiness scale for nursing education revisited: a confirmatory factor analysis. Nurse Education Today, 30, 44-48.
Garger, E. M. (1999). Goodbye training, hello learning. Workforce, 78(11), 35.
Garrison, D. (1997). Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Academic Search Complete database Retrieved January 28, 2009
Hiemstra, R. (1991). Creating environments for effective adult learning New directions for adult and continuing education (Vol. 50). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Hiemstra, R. (2000). Self-directed learning: Individualizing instruction – most still do it wrong! International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 8(1), 46-59.
Houle, C. O. (1961). The inquiring mind: A study of the adult who continues to learn. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Junaidah, H. (2008). Competency acquisition through self-directed learning among Malaysian managers. Journal of Workplace Learning, 20(4), 259-271.
Kim, M., & Park, S. Y. (2011). Factors affecting the self- directed learning of students at clinical practice course for advanced practice nurses. Asian Nursing Research, 5, 48-59.
Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Cambridge.
Knowles, M. S., Elwood F. Holton, I., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner (6 ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Kops, W. J. (1993). Self-planned learning of managers in an organizational context. In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.), Emerging perspectives in self-directed learning. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma.
Li, S. T., Tancredi, Daniel, J. C., John, P. T., & Daniel, C. (2010). Factors associated with successful self-directed learning using individualized learning plans during pediatric residency. Academic pediatrics, 10, 124-130.
Merriam, S. B. (2004). The role of cognitive development in Mezirow’s transformational learning theory. Adult Education Quarterly, 55(1), 60-68.
Merriam, S. B. (2010). Adult education-adult learning, instruction and program planning. Adult Education Quarterly, 6, 12-17.
Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Nursyamilah Annuar & Roziana Shaari (2014). The Antecedents toward Self-Directed Learning among Distance Learners in Malaysian Public Universities. Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education GSE 2014 (E- ISBN 978-967-11768-5-6) 4-5 March 2014, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Raemdonck, I., Leeden, R. v. d., Valcke, M., Segers, M., & Thijssen, J. (2012). Predictors of self-directed learning for low-qualified employees: a multi-level analysis. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(6), 572 - 591.
Raidal, S. L., & Volet, S. E. (2009). Preclinical students' predispositions towards social forms of instruction and self-directed learning: A challenge for the development of autonomous and collaborative learners. International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 57(5), 577-596.
Skiff, D. (2009). Relevancy of self-directed learning to the workplace. from http://www.selfdirectedlearning.org/relevancy of self-directed learning to the workplace
Song, L., & Hill, J. R. (2007). A conceptual model for understanding self-directed learning in online environments. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(1), 27-42.
Spear, G. E., & Mocker, D. W. (1984). The organizing circumstance: Environmental determinants in self-directed learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 35(1), 1-10.
Taylor, B. (1995). Self-directed learning: Revisiting an idea most appropriate for middle school students. Paper presented at the Combined Meeting of the Great Lakes and Southeast International Reading Association, Nashville, TN.
Tough, A. (1967). Learning without a teacher. A study of tasks and assistance during adult self-teaching projects. Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Tough, A. (1979). The Adult’s Learning Projects: A Fresh Approach to Theory and Practice in Adult Learning. ( 2nd ed. ) Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Thomas K. (2000). Intrinsic Motivation at Work, Building Energy and Commitment. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. San Fransisco.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.