The Effects of Gender and Reading Mediums on Reading Comprehension

  • Corrin Alicia Nero UNIMAS
  • Norehan Zulkiply UNIMAS

Abstract

The present study examined the effects of gender and different types of reading mediums on reading comprehension among students. Forty undergraduates were asked to read four psychopathology texts (two digital texts and two print texts). Results showed that there was no significant difference in reading comprehension between gender. However, the mean scores obtained by females were slightly higher than males. Results also showed that reading comprehension between the two groups (print versus digital) was not significantly different. Nevertheless, the mean scores revealed that participants’ performance in print reading was slightly better than digital reading, suggesting that participants may have benefited a bit more from print reading. The present findings shed further light on the effects of digital reading and print reading on reading comprehension.

Keywords: Digital reading; Gender differences; Print reading; Reading comprehension

References

Ackerman, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2011). Metacognitive regulation of text learning: On screen versus on paper. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(1), 18-12.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.

Boyle, G. J., Furedy, J. J., Neumann, D. L., & Westbury, H. R. (2010). Sex differences in verbal and visual-spatial tasks under different hemispheric visualfield presentation conditions. Perceptual and motor skills, 110(2), 396-410.

Farah, C. S., & Maybury, T. (2009). Implementing digital technology to enhance student learning of pathology. European Journal of Dental Education, 13(3), 172-178. doi: 10.1111/j.1600- 0579.2009.00570.x

Garland, K. J., & Noyes, J. M. (2004). Computer experience: A poor predictor of computer attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 20(6), 823–840.

Gould, J. D., & Grischkowsky, N. (1984). Doing the same work with hard copy and cathode ray tube (CRT) computer terminals. Human Factors, 26, 323- 337. doi:10.1177/001872088402600- 308 Kerr,

M. A., & Symons, S. E. (2006). Computerized presentation of text: Effects on children’s reading of informational material. Reading and Writing, 19(1), 1–19.

Kimura, D. (2002). Sex differences in the brain. Scientific American, 287, 32- 37. Lee, D. S., Ko, Y. H.,

Shen, I. H., & Chao, C. Y. (2011). Effect of light source, ambient illumination, character size and interline spacing on visual performance and visual fatigue with electronic paper displays. Displays, 32(1), 1–7.

Liu, Z., & Huang, X. (2008). Gender differences in the online reading environment. Journal of Documentation, 64(4), 616-626.

Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., & Brønnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 61–68.

McCrea-Andrews, H. J. (2014). A comparison of adolescents’ digital and print reading experiences: Does mode matter? South Carolina, SC: Tiger Prints, Clemson University.

Muter, P., Latremoullie, S. A., Treurniet, W. C. & Beam, P. (1982). Extended reading of continuous text on television screens. Human Factors, 24(5), 501- 508.

Oakhill, J. & Yuill, N. (1996). Higher order factors in comprehension disability: processes and remediation. In Cornoldi and Oakhill (eds.) Reading comprehension difficulties. Processes and intervention.

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1– 6. Proaps, A. B., & Bliss, J. P. (2014). The effects of text presentation format on reading comprehension and video game performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 41–47.

Schumacher, P. & Morahan-Martin, J. (2001). Gender, internet and computer attitudes and experiences. Computers in Human Behavior, 17(1), 95-110.

Seymour, P. H. K., & Evans, H. M. (1994). Levels of phonological awareness and learning to read. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 6, 221- 250.

Singer, L. M., & Alexander, P. A. (2017). Reading across mediums: Effects of reading digital and print texts on comprehension and calibration. The Journal of Experimental Education, 85(1), 155-172.

Speck, O., Ernst, T., Braun, J., Koch, C., Miller, E., & Chang, L. (2000). Gender differences in the educational organization of the brain for working memory. NeuroReport, 11, 2581- 2585.

Stoop, J., Kreutzer, P., & Kircz, J. (2013). Reading and learning from screen versus print: A study in changing habits; Part 1. New Library World, 114, 284– 300. doi:10.1108/NLW-01-2013-0012

Sun, S. Y., Shieh, C, J., & Huang, K. P. (2013). A research on comprehension differences between print and screen reading. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Special Issue, 16, 87-101.

Vekiri, I., & Chronaki, A. (2008). Gender issues in technology use: Perceived social support, computer self-efficacy and value beliefs, and computer use beyond school. Computers & Education, 51(3), 1392–1404.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of readingrelated phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bi-directional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73-87.

Wallis, C. (2010). The impacts of media multitasking on children’s learning and development: Report from a research

March 2020 seminar. New York, NY: Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop. Wastlund, E. (2007). Experimental studies of human-computer interaction: Working memory and mental workload in complex cognition.

Gotebord, Sweden: Department of Psychology, Gotenburg University. Wu, J. Y. (2013). Gender differences in online reading engagement, metacognitive strategies, navigation skills and reading literacy. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30, 252- 271.

Zickuhr, K., Rainie, L., Purcell, K., Madden, M., & Brenner, J. (2012). Younger American’s reading and library habits. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center

Published
2020-03-31
How to Cite
Nero, C. A., & Zulkiply, N. (2020). The Effects of Gender and Reading Mediums on Reading Comprehension. Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 6(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.33736/jcshd.1704.2020