Willingness to Communicate in English among ESL Undergraduates in Malaysia

  • Ai Siok KHO-YAR
  • Shameem RAFIK-GALEA
  • Elise Ai Hwee KHO


Students’ unwillingness in communicating (WTC) English has many factors especially in
second language acquisition. This study investigates the willingness to communicate
(WTC) in English among ESL undergraduates in Malaysia. A hypothesised model that integrates
WTC in English, motivation, self-efficacy, mindset, and performance was tested using
structural equation modelling (SEM). The results show that the personality of learners
are directly affecting motivation and WTC in English. Further, the results also demonstrate
that both motivation and academic achievement influences WTC in English indirectly
through self-efficacy. The final model correlates well with the data, thereby indicating the
potential of academic achievement can contribute to ESL communication.

Keywords: Willingness to communicate; low proficiency; second language acquisition;