Micro-Hydro/Solar Hybrid System Framework for Off-Grid Application

  • Nuramalina Bohari Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
  • Wan Azlan Wan Zainal Abidin Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
  • Martin Anyi Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
  • Dayang Nur Salmi Dharmiza Awang Salleh Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
Keywords: controller system, micro-hydro, solar, hybrid system, rural area.


This paper introduces the conceptual system design of micro-hydro/solar hybrid system for Kampung Semulong Ulu, Sri Aman, Sarawak. Currently, Kampung Semulong Ulu is powered by solar and diesel-generator energy systems. The existing solar system generates less than 160 W for each door of the longhouse. With the completion of micro-hydro system along with the existing solar panel in the village, the community is hoping to get the proper and continuous power generation. Community in Kampung Semulong Ulu is facing difficulties since solar is only available for a limited period and yield electricity within a limited range of load. On the other hand, the running cost of diesel-generator is very expensive and unaffordable. However, even with the existence of power generated by micro-hydro system, better utilization of the energy produced is still of vital importance due to the fact that the amount of energy generated is limited. Therefore, the conceptual system design of the hydro-solar system integration is presented. The proposed system is to ensure that the energy produced will be well-distributed and at the same time, both systems must be utilized sufficiently to ensure their sustainability. In overall, this paper presents the micro-hydro/solar hybrid system framework for off-grid application toward the community in Kampung Semulong Ulu.


Junhui Zhao, Korey Graves, Caisheng Wang, Gene Liao, and Chih-Ping (2012). A Hybrid Electric/Hydro Storage Solution for Standalone Photovoltaic Applications in Remote Areas, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1-6.


Nahid-ur-RahmanChowdhury, Syed Enam Reza, Tofaeel Ahamednito, Abd-Al-Fattah-Ibne Mahabub (2012). Present Scenario of Renewable Energy in Bangladesh and a Proposed Hybrid System to Minimize Power Crisis in Remote Areas, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, Vol 2, Number 2, p.p 281-288.

Dorin Bica, Cristian Dragos, Dumitru Adrian Gligor, Adrian-Vasile Duka (2009). Isolated Hybrid Solar-Wind-Hydro Renewable Energy Systems, T.J Hammons(Ed), In Tech.


TenMahdi Sadiqi, Anil Pahwa, and Ruth Douglas Miller (2012). Basic Design and Cost Optimization of a Hybrid Power System for Rural Communities in Afghanistan, North American Power Symposium (NAPS) , pp 1-6.


Dada Delimustafic, Jasmina Islamicbegovic, Abdullah Aksamovic and Semsudin Masic (2011). Model of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System: Control, Supervision and Energy Distribution, IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) 2011, p.p 1081-1086.


Phatiphat Thounthong, Arkhom Luksanasakul, Poolsak Koseeyaporn, and Bernard Davat (2013). Intelligent Model-Based Control of a Standalone Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Power Plant with upercapacitor Energy Storage, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 4, No. 1.


Jae Woong Shim, Youngho Cho, Seog-Joo Kim, Sang Won Min, and Kyeon Hur (2013). Synergistic Control of SMES and Battery Energy Storage for Enabling Dispatchability of Renewable Energy Sources, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 23, No. 3.


BP Solar Technical Specification Catalogue BP280F. Available: http://www.oksolar.com.

Giacomo Bruni, Stefano Cordiner, Matteo Galeotti, Vincenzo Mulone, Matteo Nobile, Vittorio Rocco (2014). Control Strategy Influence on the Efficiency of a Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Fuel Cell System Distributed Generation System for Domestic Applications, 68th Conference of the Italian Thermal Machines Engineering Association ATI2013. pp. 237 - 246.


Amr Ahmed A. Radwan, and Yasser Abdel-Rady I. Mohamed (2014). Networked Control and Power Management of AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids, IEEE Systems Journal. pp. 1-12.

Vivex Dixit, J.S. Bhatia (2013). Analysis and Design of a Domestic Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System for Low Wind Speeds, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 72, No. 22. pp. 40-44.

O. Wasynczuk, L. J. Rashkin, S. D. Pekarek, R. R. Swanson, B. P. Loop, N. Wu, S. F. Glover, J. C. Neely (2012). Voltage and Frequency Regulation Strategies in Isolated AC Micro-Grids, Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control and Intelligent Systems, pp. 5-10.


Daniel A, Guide to Hydropower -An Introduction to Hydropower Concepts and Planning, Available: http://www .canyonhydro .com.

Shoan Mbabazi, Jon Leary (2010). Analysis and Design of Electronic Load Controller for Micro-Hydro System in Developing World, Mini Project Report The University of Sheffield, pp 1-14.

Chen Wu, Hamed Mohsenian-Rad, Jianwei Huang, and Juri Jatskevich (2012). PEV-Based Combined Frequency and Voltage Regulation for Smart Grid, Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, pp 1-6.

How to Cite
Bohari, N., Wan Zainal Abidin, W. A., Anyi, M., & Dharmiza Awang Salleh, D. N. S. (2015). Micro-Hydro/Solar Hybrid System Framework for Off-Grid Application. Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering, 2(1), 18-29. https://doi.org/10.33736/jaspe.162.2015