Production Errors and Interlanguage Development Patterns of L1 Malay ESL Learners in the Acquisition of the English Passive
Studies have shown that Malay ESL learners face difficulties in acquiring the English passive, but not much is known about their acquisition patterns as they advance in their proficiency in English. This study investigated the interlanguage development patterns of L1 Malay learners by examining the production errors of learners at varying English proficiency levels. Students from tertiary institutions in Malaysia completed tasks designed to elicit production of the English passive. The results indicated that overall, the main errors committed by the learners were related to the be-auxiliary and the past participle verb form, which are non-existent in their L1. Certain types of errors diminished at higher English proficiency levels, whilst certain others persisted in high proficiency learners. These results point to underlying differences in sources of errors where some types of errors are more resistant to change, while others may be resolved as the interlanguage system develops to approximate the target language. Differential pedagogical interventions may be indicated for learners at different stages of L2 acquisition.
Abdul Aziz, R., & Mohd Don, Z. (2013). The be verb omission among advanced L1-Malay ESL learners: What corpus-based study can reveal. In S. Ishikawa (Ed.), Learner corpus studies in Asia and the world (pp. 121-138). Kobe University.
Abdul Aziz, R., & Mohd Don, Z. (2014). The overgeneration of be + verb constructions in the writing of L1 Malay ESL learners in Malaysia. Research in Corpus Linguistics, 2, 35–44.
Alasfour, A. S. (2018). Grammatical errors by Arabic ESL students: An investigation of L1 transfer through error analysis (Paper 4551) [Master’s thesis, Portland State University].
Allan, D. (2004). Oxford placement tests 2. Oxford University Press.
Amadi, S. C. (2018). Learning the English passive voice: Difficulties, learning strategies of Igbo ESL learners and pedagogical implications. International Journal of English and Literature, 9(5), 50-61. https://doi: 10.5897/IJEL2018.1146
Braidi, S. M. (1999). The acquisition of second language syntax. Oxford University Press.
Burt, M. K., & Kiparsky, C. (1972). The gooficon: A repair manual for English. Newbury House.
Choomthong, D. (2011). A case study of learning English passive of Thai EFL learners: Difficulties and learning strategies. The Asian Conference on Language Learning, Official Proceedings, 74-87.
Dulay, H., Burt, M., & Krashen, S. (1982). Language two. Oxford University Press.
Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Hameed, A. N. (2016). The use of passive voice in the writings of Arab ESL learners [Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Malaya].
Hashim, A. (2017). Crosslinguistic influence in the written English of Malay undergraduates. Journal of Modern Languages, 12(1), 60-76.
Hinkel, E. (2004). Tense, aspect and the passive voice in L1 and L2 academic texts. Language Teaching Research, 8(1), 5-29.
Hirakawa, M. (2001). L2 Acquisition of Japanese unaccusatives verbs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(2), 221-245.
Izumi, S., & Lakshamanan, U. (1998). Learnability, negative evidence and the L2 acquisition of the English passive. Second Language Research, 14(1), 62-101.
Jalaluddin, N. H., Mat Awal, N., & Abu Bakar, K. (2008). The mastery of English language among lower secondary school students in Malaysia: A linguistic analysis. European Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 106–119.
James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use: Exploring error analysis. Longman.
Kalimuttu, J. M. F. (2016). Use of passive structures in ESL narrative compositions among Malay students [Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Malaya].
Karim, N. S., Onn, F. M., Musa, H., & Mahmood, A. H. (2015). Tatabahasa Dewan (3rd ed.). Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Lim, J. M. (2007). Crosslinguistic influence versus intralingual interferences: A pedagogically motivated investigation into the acquisition of the present perfect. System, 35(3), 368-387.
Malaiappan, V., & Wong, B. E. (2020). Acquisition of English relative clauses by Malaysian L1 Tamil speakers. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 28(1), 121 – 142.
Marinis, T., & Saddy, D. (2013). Parsing the passive: Comparing children with specific language impairment to sequential bilingual children. Language Acquisition, 20(2), 155-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2013.766743
Muftah, M. Y. A., & Wong, B. E. (2011). The acquisition of English ‘be’ auxiliary and thematic verb constructions by adult Arab ESL learners. International Journal of English Linguistics, 1(2), 91-105. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v1n2p91
Nayan, S., & Jusoff, K. (2009). A study of subject-verb agreement: From novice writers to expert writers. International Education Studies, 2(3), 190-194.
Nomoto, H., & Abdul Wahab, K. (2012). Kena adversative passives in Malay, funny control and covert voice alternation. Oceanic Linguistics, 51(2), 360-338. https://doi: 10.2307/23321861
Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10(3), 209–231.
Simargool, N. (2008). Interlanguage passive construction. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 12(1), 97-103.
Somphong, M. (2013). An analysis of errors in passive sentence structures by Thai EFL university students. The Asian Conference on Education, Official Conference Proceedings (pp. 662-675).
Tarone, E. (2018). Interlanguage. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp. 1-7). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi: 10.1002/9781405198431
Ting, S. H. (2011). Difficulty with English passive voice in news report: A case study of Malaysian trainee teachers. Korea TESOL Journal, 10(1), 38-51.
Ursic, A., & Zoghbor, W. (2020). The English passive: Challenges for Thai learners and pedagogical implications. In W. Zoghbor & A. Thomaï (Eds.), Advancing English language education (pp. 199-209). Zayed University Press.
van der Lely, H. K. J. (2005). Test on active and passive sentences (TAPS). www.dldcn.com.
Wang, Y., & Pongpairoj, N. (2021). Avoidance of the English passive construction by L1 Chinese learners. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research. 14(1), 294-316.
Wee, R. (2009). Sources of errors: An interplay of interlingual influence and intralingual factors. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(2), 349-359.
Wee, R., Sim, J., & Jusoff, K. (2010). Verb-from errors in EAP writing. Educational Research and Review, 5(1), 16-23.
White, L. (2003). Second language acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge University Press.
Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.