Between Knowledge and Use of Iban and Malay Multiword Expression: An Insight into L1 and L2 Acquisition and Competence
This article examines usage and use of multiword expressions (MWE) among Iban youths in Sarawak. The questionnaire data were from 80 Iban youths who had to identify 15 MWE (similar, nearly similar and different) in Malay and Iban, and use them at the word, phrase and sentence levels. The findings revealed that close to 67% of the respondents could not recognise or use expressions in Iban, suggesting some loss of productive knowledge and language empowerment. However, respondents with recent schooling experience were able to use the expressions in Malay and reproduce them in written forms. Formal instruction and the written language have helped to extend local knowledge and use of MWE expressions for Iban youths. The study suggests that documentation, preservation and maintenance efforts stand to benefit when there is greater sharing and consciousness raising of common features between and among languages in the region.
Allard, R., & Landry, R. (1992). Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. In W. Fase, K. Jaespaert, & S. Kroon (Eds.), Maintenance and loss of minority languages (pp.171-195). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Allard, R., & Landry, R. (1986). Subjective ethnolinguistic vitality viewed as a belief system. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7, 1-12.
Arnaud, P. J. L., & Savignon, S. J. (1997). Rare words, complex lexical units and the advanced learner. In J. Coady & T. Hucking (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 157-200). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Austin, P.K. (2007). Documenting and Revitalizing Austronesian Languages. In D. V. Rau & M. Florey (Eds.), Language Documentation and Conservation Special Publication, 25-41.
Barth, F. (1990) The guru and the conjurer: Transactions in knowledge and the shaping of culture in Southeast Asia and Melanesia. Man, 24(5), 640-653.
Bamgbose, A. (1998). Language as a resource: An African Perspective. In the Workshop papers: The role of the African languages in democratic South Africa. Pretoria, University of Pretoria, CentrePOL, 5-6.
Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (4th ed.). Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Bauer, L. (1983). English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carsten, J. (2007). Constitutive knowledge: Tracing trajectories of information in new context of relatedness. Anthropological Quarterly, 80, 403-426.
Charteris-Black, J. (2002). Second language figurative proficiency: A comparative study of Malay and English. Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 104-133.
Christison, M. A., & Hayes-Harb, R. (2006, June 17-20). The role of applied linguistics in language revitalization programs. Paper presented at the Joint conference of the American Association for Applied Linguistics and the Association Canadienne de Linguistique Applique/Canadian Association of Applied linguistics, Montreal, Canada.
Chua, L. (2009). To know or not to know? Practices of knowledge and ignorance among Bidayuhs in an "impurely" Christian world. Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute, 15, 332-348.
Cronbach, L.J. (1942). Measuring knowledge of precise word meaning. The Journal of Educational Research, 36(7), 528-534.
Clynes, A., & Deterding, D. (2011). Standard Malay (Brunei). Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41(2), 259-268.
Cope, L., & Penfield, S.D. (2011). Applied linguists needed: Cross-disciplinary networking for revitalization and education in endangered language contexts, Language and Education, 25(4), 267-271.
Danesi, M. (1994). Recent research on metaphor and the teaching of Italian. Italica, 71, 453-464.
Davis, W. (2009). The Wayfinders: Why ancient wisdom matters in the modern world (CBC Massey Lecture). Toronto: House of Anansi Press.
Deignan, A., Gabrys, D. X., & Solska, A. (1997). Teaching English metaphors using crosslinguistic awareness raising activities. ELT Journal, 51(4), 353-360.
Eichholz, G., & Barbe, R. (1961). An experiment in vocabulary development. Educational Research Bulletin, 28, 1-7.
Gass, S. (1988). Integrating research areas: A framework for second language studies. Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 13-27.
Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Anchor Books.
Johnson, J. M. (1996). Metaphor interpretations by second language learners: Children and adults. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 53, 219-241.
Kachru, Y., & Smith, L. (2009). The karmic cycle of world Englishes: Some futuristic constructs. World Englishes, 29(1), 1-14.
Kramsch, C. (2011). The symbolic dimensions of the intercultural. Plenary Speeches. Language Teaching, 44(3), 354-367.
Lewis, M. P. (2006). Towards a categorization of endangerment of the world's languages. SIL Electronic Working Papers http://www.sil.org/silewp/abstract.asp?ref=2006-002>.
Nathan, D., & Fang, M. (2009). Language documentation and pedagogy of endangered languages. A mutual revitalization. In P. Austin (Ed.), Language documentation and description (pp. 132-160), London: Hans Rausing Endangered Language Project.
Penfield, S. D., & Tucker, B. V. (2011). From documenting to revitalizing an endangered language: where do applied linguists fit? Language and Education, 25(4), 291-305.
Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1997). Vocabulary enhancement activities and reading for meaning in second language vocabulary acquisition. In J. Coady & T. Hucking (Eds). Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 174-200). Cambridge, UK: CUP.
Postill, J. (2007). Knowledge, literacy, and media among the Iban of Sarawak: A reply to Maurice Bloch. Social Anthropology, 11(1), 79-100.
Sag, I. A., Baldwin, T., Bond, F., Copestake, A., & Flickinger, D. (2001). Multi-word expressions: A pain in the neck for NLP. LinGO Working Paper No. 2001-03. Stanford University, CA.
Sarok, A. (1998). Problems and prospects facing Bidayuh mother tongue education. http://www.bidayuh.com/dbna/Mtongue.html
Strathen, M. (1999). Refusing information. In Property, substance and effect: Anthopological essays on persons and things (pp. 64-86). London: Athlone Press.
Syzdykov, K. (2014). Contrastive studies on proverbs. Linelt 2013. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 136, 318-321.
Taylor, L. (1988). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Ting, S. H., & Campbell, Y.M. (2017). The role of indigenous languages in schools: The case of Sarawak. In M. Samuel. M. Y. Tee, & L. Symaco (Eds.), Education in Malaysia. Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects (pp. 119-136). Singapore: Springer.
Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T. S. (1996). Assessing second language vocabulary knowledge: Depth versus breadth. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 53(1), 13-40.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.