Precarity Amidst ‘Ad-Hoc’ Access to Education for Second Generation of Youth Immigrants in Kudat, Sabah

  • Linda A. Lumayag
  • Ivie C. Esteban
  • Francisco P. Dumanig
Keywords: precarity, migration, second-generation immigrants, Sabah, access to education


While migration literature is littered with studies on stateless and undocumented children in Malaysia, there is scant focus on the second generation of stateless and undocumented immigrants who were born in Sabah. What happened to the second generation of IMM13 holders and what kind of life condition they tread since? This paper investigates the situation of children of IMM13 holders who were given access to school before 2003, though remain undocumented, and how they make sense of their lives as young adults. Based on in-depth interviews and observations from a broader study conducted in 2013-2016, youths aged 20-30 years old from Kudat, on the west coast of Sabah, it is our contention that for the undocumented, temporary or ad-hoc access to education remains a palliative route without social inclusion of immigrants into the mainstream society.  


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How to Cite
A. Lumayag, L., C. Esteban , I., & P. Dumanig, F. (2021). Precarity Amidst ‘Ad-Hoc’ Access to Education for Second Generation of Youth Immigrants in Kudat, Sabah. Journal of Borneo-Kalimantan, 7(1), 53-66. Retrieved from