Toner Used In The Development of Foamed Concrete For Structural Use
This paper investigates the effect of toner as a new material on enhancing compressive strength and permeability of foamed concrete (FC). The aim is to develop the FC through testing the reaction of toner with the cement of the FC, to produce a hydrophobic lightweight FC to use for structural elements. Foamed concrete is generally made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), sand, foaming agent, and water with a well spread pore structure. The experiment was carried out on 100 mm cubes. Results for toner inclusion of all the mixes, when added in the right quantities, showed high improvement for water penetration and compressive strength in comparison to the published data on FC for the use as structural material, which is a step forward in the advancement of FC to meet the aim of this research.
Nambiar E.K.K and Ramamurthy K., 2007b. Sorption characteristics of foam concrete, Cement and Concrete Research 37, pp. 1341-1347.
Mydin, M.A.O. and Wang, Y.C. (2011). 'Structural performance of lightweight steel-foamed concrete-steel composite walling system under compression', Thin-Walled Structures, 49(1), pp. 66-76.
British Cement Association, Ref. 46.042, 1994, pp 4. Foamed concrete; Composition and Properties.
Dransfield J.M., 2000. Foamed Concrete: Introduction to the Product and its Properties, one-day awareness seminar on 'Foamed Concrete: Properties, Applications and Potential, University of Dundee, Scotland, pp. 1-11.
Jones, M.R. and McCarthy, A., 2005b. Preliminary views on the potential of foamed concrete as a structural material. Magazine of Concrete Research 57(1), pp. 21-31.
Jones M.R., 2000. Foamed concrete for structural use, one-day awareness seminar on 'Foamed Concrete: Properties, Applications and Potential', University of Dundee, Scotland pp. 54-79.
Amran, Y. H. M., Farzadnia, N. and Ali, A.A.A. (2015). 'Properties and applications of foamed concrete; a review', Construction and Building Materials, 101, pp. 990-1005.
Panesar, D.K, (2013). 'Cellular concrete properties and the effect of synthetic and protein foaming agents', Construction and Building Materials, 44, pp. 575-584.
Jones, M.R. and McCarthy, A., 2005c. Behaviour and assessment of foamed concrete for construction applications, Proceedings of the International Conference on the Use of Foamed Concrete in Construction pp. 61-88.
Nambiar E.K.K and Ramamurthy K., 2000. Structure and properties of aerated concrete: a review, Cement and Concrete Composites vol. 22 pp. 321 - 329.
Jones, M.R. and McCarthy, A., 2006. Heat of hydration in foamed concrete: Effect of mix constituents and Plastic density. Cement and Concrete Research 36(6), pp. 1032-1041.
Jones M.R., McCarthy A and McCarthy M.J., 2003. Moving fly-ash utilisation in concrete forward: a UK perspective, Proceedings of the 'International Ash Utilization Symposium', Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky.
McCarthy A., 2004. Thermally insulating foundations and ground slabs for sustainable housing using Foamed concrete, PhD Thesis, University of Dundee.
Sandra V.P, 2014. Harvard Physico-chemical and toxicological studies of engineered nanoparticles emitted from printing equipment. Harvard school of public health.
BS EN 12390-3:2009, Testing hardened concrete.
BS EN 12390-8:2009, Testing for capillary water absorption.
BS 1881-122:2011, Testing for total water absorption.
Upon acceptance of an article, the corresponding author on behalf of all authors will be asked to complete and upload the Copyright Transfer Form (refer to Copyright Issues for more information on this) alongside the electronic proof file.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and refer the publication in the Journal.
2) For open-access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds the copyright or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subjected to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) are responsible to ensure their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. The corresponding author has obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If the submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare that the researches which they have conducted comply with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving humans or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from the Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that they have no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor(s) or UNIMAS Publisher.