Toner Used In The Development of Foamed Concrete For Structural Use

  • P. A. Shawnim
  • F. Mohammad


This paper investigates the effect of toner as a new material on enhancing compressive strength and permeability of foamed concrete (FC). The aim is to develop the FC through testing the reaction of toner with the cement of the FC, to produce a hydrophobic lightweight FC to use for structural elements. Foamed concrete is generally made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), sand, foaming agent, and water with a well spread pore structure. The experiment was carried out on 100 mm cubes. Results for toner inclusion of all the mixes, when added in the right quantities, showed high improvement for water penetration and compressive strength in comparison to the published data on FC for the use as structural material, which is a step forward in the advancement of FC to meet the aim of this research.


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How to Cite
Shawnim, P. A., & Mohammad, F. (2018). Toner Used In The Development of Foamed Concrete For Structural Use. Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology, 9(1), 27-33.