LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE (LST) ESTIMATION AT KUSHTIA DISTRICT, BANGLADESH
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key phenomenon in worldwide climate change. The knowledge of surface temperature is important to a range of issues and themes in earth sciences, central to urban climatology, global environmental change, and human-environment interactions. In this study, LST for Kushtia District, Khulna division, Bangladesh, is derived using Arc-GIS software version from the images of Landsat 8 Optical Land Imager (OLI) of 30 m resolution and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIR) data of 100 m resolution, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) with opto-mechanical sensor and Spatial Resolution of 30 m (60 m – thermal, 15-m panchromatic) and Landsat-5 Thematic MAPPER (TM) satellites. A total time span of 20 years, starting from 1998 to 2018 is selected. At every 5 years interval starting from 1998, air temperature, LST, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) have been calculated. Using the equation from Landsat user’s handbook, the digital number of thermal infrared band is converted into spectral radiance. Plank’s Inverse Function is used to obtain the effective at-sensor brightness temperature from the spectral radiance. The surface emissivity based on NDVI classes is used to retrieve the final LST. The study reveals that LST is increasing with the passage of time. Maximum values of LST are found along the North-East and North-West regions of Kushtia district. NDVI is found to have positive correlation with LST. Also, it has been found that NDWI has little influence on LST. The reasons behind the rise and fall of LST in different years are explained from changes in total vegetation coverage and total abundance of water body coverage viewpoint. The spatial distribution figures of air temperature, LST, NDVI and NDWI could be used as a guideline for urban planning, strategies for quality improvement of urban environment and a smart solution to the reduction of LST.
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