ASSESSMENT OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS OF PAKISTAN

  • Wesam Salah Alaloul Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Ali Musarat Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
  • Hussain Mehmood Department of Civil Engineering, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Altaf Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
Keywords: Labour Productivity, Critical factors, Road, Construction Industry, Pakistan

Abstract

Road construction in Pakistan is booming because of China’s One Belt One Road program. Pakistan is in a developing stage and facing a lot of challenges in construction projects, primarily in labour productivity. This research focuses on the factors affecting labour productivity in road construction projects of Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to observe the impact of critical factors on labour productivity. Based on the gathered responses, the factors were ranked using the Relative Importance Index (RII). The analysis shows that out of thirty (30) factors, the most important five (5) factors that affect labour productivity on road construction are unskilled workforce, payment delays to labour, tools and equipment shortages, poor communication of supervisor with labours and financial difficulties of owner/contractor. By focusing on these critical issues’ betterment can be made in labour productivity which will directly enhance the projects’ performance.

References

M. A. Musarat and M. Z. Ahad, "Factors affecting the success of construction projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1-6, 2016

https://doi.org/10.6106/JCEPM.2016.12.4.001

W. S. Alaloul, M. S. Liew, N. A. W. Zawawi, B. S. Mohammed, M. Adamu, and M. A. Musharat, "Structural equation modelling of construction project performance based on coordination factors," Cogent engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 1726069, 2020

https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2020.1726069

W. S. Alaloul, M. A. Musarat, M. S. Liew, and N. A. W. A. Zawawi, "Influential safety performance and assessment in construction projects: a review," 2019 2020: Springer, pp. 719-728

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32816-0_50

W. S. Alaloul, M. S. Liew, and N. A. W. A. Zawawi, "Identification of coordination factors affecting building projects performance," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 2689-2698, 2016

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.06.010

B. A. Tayeh, K. Al Hallaq, W. S. Alaloul, and A. R. Kuhail, "Factors affecting the success of construction projects in Gaza Strip," The Open Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, 2018

https://doi.org/10.2174/1874149501812010301

B. A. Tayeh, K. Al Hallaq, A. H. Al Faqawi, W. S. Alaloul, and S. Y. Kim, "Success factors and barriers of last planner system implementation in the gaza strip construction industry," The Open Construction & Building Technology Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, 2018

https://doi.org/10.2174/1874836801812010389

W. S. Alaloul, M. A. Musarat, M. S. Liew, and N. A. W. A. Zawawi, "Influential Safety Performance and Assessment in Construction Projects: A Review," 2019 2019: Springer, pp. 719-728.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32816-0_50

A. Kazaz and T. Acıkara, "Comparison of labor productivity perspectives of project managers and craft workers in Turkish construction industry," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 64, pp. 491-496, 2015

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.548

M. A. Musarat, W. S. Alaloul, and M. S. Liew, "Impact of inflation rate on construction projects budget: A review," Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 2020

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2020.04.009

M. A. Musarat, W. S. Alaloul, M. S. Liew, A. Maqsoom, and A. H. Qureshi, "Investigating the impact of inflation on building materials prices in construction industry," Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 32, p. 101485, 2020

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2020.101485

W. S. Alaloul, M. S. Liew, N. A. W. A. Zawawi, and B. S. Mohammed, "Industry revolution IR 4.0: future opportunities and challenges in construction industry," 2018 2018, vol. 203: EDP Sciences, p. 02010

https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201820302010

W. S. Alaloul, M. S. Liew, N. A. W. A. Zawawi, and I. B. Kennedy, "Industrial Revolution 4.0 in the construction industry: Challenges and opportunities for stakeholders," Ain shams engineering journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 225-230, 2020

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2019.08.010

N. Ghodrati, T. W. Yiu, and S. Wilkinson, "Unintended consequences of management strategies for improving labor productivity in construction industry," Journal of safety research, vol. 67, pp. 107-116, 2018

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2018.09.001

L. Florez and J. C. Cortissoz, "Defining a mathematical function for labor productivity in masonry construction: A case study," Procedia Engineering, vol. 164, pp. 42-48, 2016

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.590

C. Hendrickson, C. T. Hendrickson, and T. Au, Project management for construction: Fundamental concepts for owners, engineers, architects, and builders. Chris Hendrickson, 1989.

J. G. Lowe, "The measurement of productivity in the construction industry," Construction management and economics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 101-113, 1987.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01446198700000010

M. Gillen and J. L. Gittleman, "Path forward: emerging issues and challenges," Journal of safety research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 301-306, 2010

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2010.04.005

R. Rustum, "Modelling The factors Affecting Quality of Building Construction Projects During The construction Phase in Gaza Strip," 2002

A. M. Jarkas, "Critical investigation into the applicability of the learning curve theory to rebar fixing labor productivity," Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 136, no. 12, pp. 1279-1288, 2010

https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000236

F.-S. Liou and J. D. Borcherding, "Work sampling can predict unit rate productivity," Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 90-103, 1986

https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1986)112:1(90)

K. M. Harmon and B. Cole, "Loss of productivity studies-Current uses and misuses," Constr. Briefings, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2006.

A. A. Atkinson, J. H. Waterhouse, and R. B. Wells, "A stakeholder approach to strategic performance measurement," MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 25, 1997.

H. E. Picard, "Direct labor productivity measurement: As applied in construction and major maintenance projects," AACE International Recommended Proactive, no. 22R-01, 2004

A. Hassanein and J. Melin, "Crew design methodology for construction contractors," Journal of construction engineering and management, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 203-207, 1997

https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1997)123:3(203)

J. Motwani, A. Kumar, and M. Novakoski, "Measuring construction productivity: a practical approach," Work study, 1995

https://doi.org/10.1108/00438029510103310

S. Durdyev and J. Mbachu, "Key constraints to labour productivity in residential building projects: Evidence from Cambodia," International Journal of Construction Management, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 385-393, 2018

https://doi.org/10.1080/15623599.2017.1326301

M. R. A. Kadir, W. P. Lee, M. S. Jaafar, S. M. Sapuan, and A. A. A. Ali, "Factors affecting construction labour productivity for Malaysian residential projects," Structural survey, 2005

M. L. Yahaya, M. Sani, and A. S. Shehu, "Evaluating Internal Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Medium-Sized Construction Firms in Nigeria: PLS-SEM Approach."

S. S. Wong and L. K. Lau, "Advantages and setbacks of industrialized building system (IBS) implementation: a case study in Sarawak," International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 52-61, 2015

I. Perkins and M. Skitmore, "Three-dimensional printing in the construction industry: A review," International Journal of Construction Management, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2015

https://doi.org/10.1080/15623599.2015.1012136

A. B. Muzamil and B. Khurshid, "Analysis of labour productivity of road construction in Pakistan," International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 153-159, 2014.

M. Altaf, M. A. Musarat, A. Khan, Z. Shoukat, and U. Salahuddin, "Change order impact on construction industry of Pakistan," 2019 2020: Springer, pp. 391-402

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32816-0_25

M. A. Musarrat, O. Inderyas, S. Khan, and A. A. Shah, "Causes of delay in the execution phase of construction projects in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Pakistan," Sarhad University International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 62-70, 2017.

A. Z. Durrani and A. H. Mir, "Pakistan Infrastructure Implementation Capacity Assessment," World Bank, Pakistan, 2007.

A. R. Nasir, H. F. Gabriel, and R. M. Choudhry, "Cost and time overruns in highway projects of Pakistan," 2011, pp. 69-76.

T. Sarmad and M. A. Choudhary, "Implementation Challenges and Handling Project Management Complexities in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor," 2019 2019: IEEE, pp. 1-10

https://doi.org/10.23919/PICMET.2019.8893801

F. M. Mirza, N. Fatima, and K. Ullah, "Impact of China-Pakistan economic corridor on Pakistan's future energy consumption and energy saving potential: Evidence from sectoral time series analysis," Energy Strategy Reviews, vol. 25, pp. 34-46, 2019

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.04.015

S. H. Basit, "Terrorizing the CPEC: managing transnational militancy in China-Pakistan relations," The Pacific Review, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 694-724, 2019

https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2018.1516694

I. A. Rahman, A. H. Memon, A. Q. Memon, M. A. Shaikh, and F. Siddiqui, "Factors affecting the labour productivity in construction projects of Pakistan," 2019, vol. 266: EDP Sciences, p. 05010.

https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201926605010

A. Rahman. "Pakistan's Labor Productivity Stands Lowest in The Region." https://propakistani.pk/2019/03/26/pakistans-labor-productivity-stands-lowest-in-theregion/#:~:text=Pakistan's%20labor%20productivity%20showed%20a,Bank%20of%20Pakistan%20(SBP) (accessed.

C. Data. "Pakistan Labour Productivity Growth." https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/pakistan/labour-productivitygrowth#:~:text=Pakistan's%20Labour%20Productivity%20dropped%20by,4.79%20%25%20in%20the%20previous%20year.&text=The%20data%20reached%20an%20all,Real%20GDP%20and%20annual%20Employment. (accessed.

I. Mahamid, "Study of relationship between rework and labor productivity in Building Construction Projects," Revista de la construcción, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 30-40, 2020

https://doi.org/10.7764/rdlc.19.1.30-41

A. Enshassi, S. Mohamed, Z. A. Mustafa, and P. E. Mayer, "Factors affecting labour productivity in building projects in the Gaza Strip," Journal of civil engineering and management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 245-254, 2007

https://doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2007.9636444

A. A. Attar, A. K. Gupta, and D. B. Desai, "A study of various factors affecting labour productivity and methods to improve it," IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 11-14, 2012.

M. Loosemore, "Improving construction productivity: a subcontractor's perspective," Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 2014

https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-05-2013-0043

Published
2021-04-30
How to Cite
Salah Alaloul, W., Musarat, M. A., Mehmood, H., & Altaf, M. (2021). ASSESSMENT OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS OF PAKISTAN. Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology, 12(1), 32-38. https://doi.org/10.33736/jcest.3340.2021