• James Rotimi Adewumi Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria
  • Temitope Fausat Ajibade Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China
  • Fidelis Odedishemi Ajibade Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China
Keywords: Onsite sanitation, Sanitation facilities, Water Supply, Waste management, Public places.


Public places within Nigeria are ever humming with tremendous activity and accordingly reflecting growth and development of the host cities. The ensuing channelization demands of these centres calls for apposite sanitation to enhancing efficient operation and utilization. This study was undertaken to assess the present status of onsite sanitation facilities in public places within Akure, to trace problems related to sanitation and solid waste management. Logical sampling methods were used to sample the users and passers-by of selected public places. Primary data were acquired from scrutinizing sanitation facilities, employing questionnaire, and interviewing the chief players- drivers and traders- in these centres. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from both primary and secondary sources were employed for this study. Survey facts were analyzed using descriptive statistical method while Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was further utilized in results analysis. The outcomes showed existing sanitary facilities are insufficient to match the populace, and a poor maintenance of these facilitates credited to unavailability of dedicated management staff coupled with flawed maintenance and monitoring by local authorities. This is occasioned by lower than normal patronage. Further, the general experience of the respondent with regard to these facilities were rather unpleasant. Combating strategies to the established challenges in the selected centres are active governmental involvement in restructuring these places in conformity with standard requirements; community support programs, and a supervisory team routinely overseeing the reliability and development of sanitation facilities.


World Health Organization, 2015. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. Geneva, Switzerland.

UN, 2015. Report on China's Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015), Beijing.

C.M. Freeman, J.V. Garn, G.D. Sclar, S. Boisson, K. Medlicott, K.T. Alexander, G. Penakalapati, D. Anderson, A.G. Mahtani, J.E.T. Grimes, E.A. Rehfuess, T.F. Clasen, 2017. The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 220: 928-949

J.V. Garn, G.D. Sclar, M.C. Freeman, K.T. Alexander, G. Penakalapati, P. Brooks, E. A. Rehfuess, T.F. Clasen, 2017. The impact of sanitation interventions on latrine coverage and latrine use: a systematic review and meta-analysis Part B. Int. J. Hyg. Environ Health. 220: 329-340

World Health Organization (WHO), 2013. Diarrhoeal Disease. WHO Fact Sheet 330

A. Prüss-Ustün, J. Bartram, T. Clasen, J.M. Colford, O. Cumming, V. Curtis, 2014. Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 19: 894-905.

C.J.L. Murray, R.M. Barber, K.J. Foreman, A.A. Ozgoren, F. Abd-Allah, S.F. Abera, 2015. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. The Lancet. 386: 2145-2191.

J.K. Kamara, M. Galukande, F. Maeda, S. Luboga, A.M.N. Renzaho, 2017. Understanding the Challenges of Improving Sanitation and Hygiene Outcomes in a Community Based Intervention: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Tanzania. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 14 602.

Akosile, S.I., Ajibade, F.O., Lasisi, K.H., Ajibade, T.F., Adewumi, J.R., Babatola, J.O., Oguntuase, A.M., 2020. Performance evaluation of locally produced ceramic filters for household water treatment in Nigeria. Scientific African 7, e00218

O. T. Opafola, K. T. Oladepo, F. O. Ajibade, A.O. David 2020. Potability assessment of packaged sachet water sold within a tertiary institution in southwestern Nigeria, Journal of King Saud University- Science, 32(3):1999-2004.

B.A. Ilori, J.R. Adewumi, K.H. Lasisi, F.O. Ajibade, 2019.Qualitative assessment of some available water resources in Efon-Alaaye, Nigeria, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 23 (1): 29-34.

UN, 2018. The Sustainable Development Goals Report.

O.B. Ezeudu, 2019. Urban sanitation in Nigeria: the past, current and future status of access, policies and institutions. Rev. Environ. Health.

Vanguard Newspaper, 58m Nigerian Urban dwellers lack basic sanitation. Published November 19 2016. Available online at: (accessed on 3 January 2020).

Punch Newspaper. Reversing Nigeria's deplorable water and sanitation situation. October 11, 2017, (accessed on 29 January 2020).

J.P.R. Sorensen, A. Sadhu, G. Sampath, S. Sugden, D.S. Gupta, D.J. Lapworth, B.P. Marchant, S. Pedley, 2016. Are sanitation interventions a threat to drinking water supplies in rural India? An application of tryptophan-like fluorescence. Water Res. 88: 923-932

B.T. Shivendra, H.K. Ramaraju, 2015. Impact of onsite sanitation system on Groundwater in different Geological settings of Peri Urban areas. Aqua. Proc. 4: 1162-1172

A. Bancalari, S. Martinez, 2017. Exposure to sewage from on-site sanitation and child health: a spatial analysis of linkages and externalities in peri-urban Bolivia. J. Water, Sanit. Hyg. Develop. 8: 90-99

R. Quamar, C. Jangam, J. Veligeti, P. Chintalapudi, R. Janipella, 2017. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer. Appl. Water Sci. 7: 4375-4386

Y. Coombes, J. Devine, 2010. Introducing FOAM: A Framework to Analyze Handwashing Behaviors to Design Effective Handwashing Programs. Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank.

I.R. Abubakar 2018. Exploring the determinants of open defecation in Nigeria using demographic and health survey data. Sci. Tot. Environ 637-638: 1455-1465

T.R. Noor, S. Ashrafee, 2004. An end to Open Defecation: Process, Cost, Motivation and Sustainability. 30th WEDC International Conference: People-Centred Approaches to Water and Environmental Sanitation. Vientiane, Lao PDR pp. 120-123.

P.R. Pujari, C. Pawan, P.K. Labhasetwar, P. Mahore 2011. Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings - a case study from India. Environ. Monit. Assess. 184: 251-63

M. Strauss, 2000. Planning Towards Improved Excreta Management: A case study. Proceedings of IWA Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems 24-26 September 2000, Istanbul, Turkey. Available at: (Accessed 05/06/ 2018).

T. Koottatep, C. Polprasert, N. Oanh, N. Surinkul, A. Montangero, M. Strauss, 2002. Constructed Wetlands for Septage Treatment - Towards Effective Faecal Sludge Management. Proceedings of International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control 16 - 19 September 2002, Sept. 16 - 19, Arusha, Tanzania, 598-599. Available at: (Accessed 05/06/ 2018).

L. Fewtrell, R.B. Kaufmann, D. Kay, W. Enanoria, L. Haller, J.M. Colford, 2005. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infect. Diseases. 5: 42-52.

G.F. White, D.J. Bradley, A.U. White, 1972. Drawers of Water. University Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

A. Peal, B. Evans, I. Blackett, P. Hawkins, C. Heymans, 2014. Fecal sludge management: analytical tools for assessing FSM in cities. J. Water, Sanit. Hyg. Develop. 4: 371-383.

F.O. Ajibade, J.R. Adewumi, O.M. Ojo, J.O. Babatola, A.M. Oguntuase, 2015. Issues, Challenges and Management of Water Supply and Sanitation in Nigeria: An Overview. 2015 Conference Proceedings on National Development Strategies towards Sustainable Civil Infrastructure, International Civil Engineering Conference held at Kwara Hotel, Ilorin, Nigeria, 28th - 30th October, Nigerian Institution of Civil Engineers (, 19 - 34.

I.R. Abubakar, 2017. Access to sanitation facilities among Nigerian households: determinants and sustainability implications. Sustainability 9 (4), 547.

U.I. Ngwu, 2017. The practice of open defecation in rural communities in Nigeria: a call for social and behaviour change communication intervention. International J. Commun. Res. 7 (3), 201-206.

Mara, D.; Lane, J.; Scott, B.; Trouba, D. Sanitation and health. PLoS Med. 2010, 7, e1000363.

Ajibade, F.O., Olajire, O.O., Ajibade, T.F., Nwogwu, N.A., Lasisi, K.H., Alo, A.B., Owolabi, T.A., Adewumi, J.R., 2019a. Combining multicriteria decision analysis with GIS for suitably siting landfills in a Nigerian state. Environ. Sustain. Indic. 3-4, 100010.

Ajibade, F.O., Adelodun, B., Ajibade, T.F., Lasisi, K.H., Abiola, C., Adewumi, J.R., Akinbile, C.O., 2019b. The threatening effects of open dumping on soil at waste disposal sites of Akure city, Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Waste Manag. (Manuscript accepted)

O.E. Oluwatuyi, F.O. Ajibade, T.F. Ajibade, B. Adelodun, A.S. Olowoselu, J.R. Adewumi, C.O. Akinbile 2020. Total concentration, contamination status and distribution of elements in a Nigerian State dumpsites soil. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators 5 (2020) 100021.

Adewumi, J.R., Ejeh, O.J., Lasisi, K.H., Ajibade, F.O., 2019. A GIS-AHP based approach in sitting MSW landfills in a Nigerian confluence state. SN Appl. Sci. 1, 1528.

J.R. Adewumi, F.O. Ajibade, 2015. The Pollution Effects of Indiscriminate Disposal of Wastewater on Soil in Semi-Urban Area. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag., 19: 412 - 419.

F.O. Ajibade, J.R. Adewumi, A.M. Oguntuase, 2014. Sustainable Approach to Wastewater Management in the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Nig. J. Technol. Res., 9: 27 - 36.

F.O. Ajibade, J.R. Adewumi, 2017. Performance Evaluation of Aquatic Macrophytes as a Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. J. Eng. Eng. Technol., 11: 1 - 11.

F.O. Ajibade, J.R. Adewumi, A.M. Oguntuase, 2014. Design of Improved Stormwater Management System for the Federal University of Technology, Akure. Niger. J. Technol., 33: 470-481.

Ajibade, F.O., 2013. Design of a Central Wastewater Disposal System for an Urban Area Using FUTA Campus as Case Study. Unpublished M. Eng. Thesis. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, pp. 40-43.

G.D. Sclar, G. Penakalapati, H.K. Amato, J.V. Garn, K. Alexander, M.C. Freeman, S. Boisson, K.O. Medlicott, T. Clasen, 2016. Assessing the impact of sanitation on indicators of fecal exposure along principal transmission pathways: a systematic review. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 219: 709-723.

G. Guyatt, A.D. Oxman, E.A. Akl, R. Kunz, G. Vist, J. Brozek, S. Norris, Y. Falck-Ytter, P. Glasziou, H. DeBeer, R. Jaeschke, D. Rind, J. Meerpohl, P. Dahm, H.J. Schunemann, 2011. GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 64: 383-394

J. Crocker, D. Saywell, J. Bartram, 2017. Sustainability of community-led total sanitation outcomes: Evidence from Ethiopia and Ghana. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 220: 551-557

M. Kurian, V.R. Reddy, T. Dietz, D. Brdjanovic, 2013. Wastewater re-use for peri-urban agriculture: a viable option for adaptive water management? Sustain. Sci, 8: 47 - 59

USAID, 2010. Nigeria Water and Sanitation Profile, March (2010). (Accessed 05/06/2018)

Y. Afacan, M.O. Gurel, 2015. Public Toilets: An Exploratory Study on the Demands, Needs, and Expectations in Turkey. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 42: 242-262.

I.K. Osumanu, E. A. Kosoe, 2013. Where do I answer nature's call? An assessment of accessibility and utilisation of toilet facilities in Wa, Ghana. Ghana J. Geog. 5: 17-31

A.S. Aremu, 2012. Assessment of Sanitation Facilities in Primary Schools within Ilorin, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci Environ. Sanit., 7: 29-33.

P. Alagidede, A.N. Alagidede, 2015. The public health effects of water and sanitation in selected West African countries. Public Health, 130: 1 - 5

H.I. Abdel-Shafy, M.S.M. Mansour, 2018. Solid waste issue: Sources, composition, disposal, recycling, and valorization, Egypt. J. Petrol., 27: 1275-1290.

J.T. Tukahirwa, A.P.J. Mol, P. Oosterveer, 2013. Comparing urban sanitation and solid waste management in East African metropolises: The role of civil society organizations. Cities. 30: 204-211

C.L. Moe, R.D. Rheingans, 2006. Global Challenges in Water, Sanitation and Health. J. Water Health, 4 (1): 41-57.

P. Kolsky, 1998. Storm drainage: an intermediate guide to the low-cost evaluation of system performance. London, Intermediate Technology Publications.

S. Alam, M. Mondal, 2019. Assessment of sanitation service quality in urban slums of Khulna city based on SERVQUAL and AHP model: A case study of railway slum, Khulna, Bangladesh. J. Urban Manag. 8(1): 20 - 27

How to Cite
Adewumi, J. R., Ajibade, T. F., & Ajibade, F. O. (2020). APPRAISAL OF ON-SITE SANITATION FACILITIES AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC PLACES WITHIN AKURE MUNICIPALITY, NIGERIA. Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology, 11(1), 8-21.