Effect of Roughness on Discharge
These Water resource projects and hydraulic engineering works have been developing rapidly throughout the world, thus prediction of water roughness coefficient is becoming an importance criteria for the designs of hydraulic related structure like open channel, and dam structure. The purposes of this research are to determine the effect of roughness on discharge and study on the factors that affect roughness coefficient. The roughness coefficient for this study is expressed in terms of Manning’s n. Experimental works were carried out to study the effect of roughness by using flumes (8m x 0.3m x 0.4m) with different types of roughened bed such as 2mm grain size plate and 5mm grain size plate. The experiments were being tested with various flow rates for slope equal to 1:300, 1:600 and 1:900 to determine the effect of slope on roughness coefficient. The results of the experimental study were presented and shown that the effect of surface roughness, material grain size, channel slope, and Manning’s roughness coefficient on flow rate. For the range of conditions tested, the discharge was found to be decreased as roughness coefficient increase. From the experiments, it shows smoother surface is having lower roughness coefficient and less retarding effect on the water flow, higher flow rate is produced. As conclusion, flow rate and roughness coefficient were influenced by bed roughness and slope.
H.R. French, "Hydraulic of Open Channel Flow", Washington: McGraw-Hill, 176-178,1966.
F. Huthoff, and D. Augustijin, "Channel roughness in 1D steady uniform flow: Manning or Chezy", Research for Managing Rivers: Present and Future Issues, 98-100, 2005.
V.T. Chow, "Open Channel Flow," London: McGRAW-HILL, 11,95,99,136-140,1959.
L.D. Donker, P. Troch, R. Verhoeven, K. Bal, P. Meire, and J. Quintelier, "Determination of the Manning Roughness Coefficient Influenced by Vegetation in the River", Environ Fluid Mech (2009) 9:549-567, 2009.
B.C. Yen, "Open Channel Flow Resistance", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 128 (1): 20 - 39, 2002.
Upon acceptance of an article, the corresponding author on behalf of all authors will be asked to complete and upload the Copyright Transfer Form (refer to Copyright Issues for more information on this) alongside the electronic proof file.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and refer the publication in the Journal.
2) For open-access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds the copyright or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subjected to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) are responsible to ensure their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. The corresponding author has obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If the submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare that the researches which they have conducted comply with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving humans or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from the Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that they have no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor(s) or UNIMAS Publisher.