• Ehizonomhen Solomon Okonofua Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, PMB 1154 Benin City, Nigeria
  • Ifeanyi Benjamin Nwadialo Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, PMB 1154 Benin City, Nigeria
  • M. O. Ekun Department of Geomatics, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154 Benin City, Nigeria
Keywords: effluent, pollution, brewery, water quality index, discharge


This study examined the effects of brewery wastewater on the quality of water in Ikpoba River which has experienced significant pollution over the years, with a view of determining the main pollutants in the river water. River water samples were collected from eight different sampling locations covering a total distance of 750 m: one sample from upstream at 150 m from the effluent discharge location, two samples from effluents discharge point, and five samples from the downstream location at 150 m interval. The samples were collected twice a month in March, May, and July 2014 during the period of intense activity of production. The physcio-chemical analyses of the 25 selected parameters were analysed and values obtained were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI) of the river. The results indicated that Ikpoba River is severely polluted (WQI = -5429792.89, in SN1, March, 2014) as a result of untreated brewery effluent. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the parameter that contributes mainly to the pollution of the river. The result of the PCA further shows that the only reoccurring parameter is Copper. Therefore, the study concludes that Copper is the only component factor that influences the river water quality throughout the period under study. The study strongly recommends that any proposed treatment method must be targeted at the removal of copper in addition to other factors of high contributory effects.


Abida, B., and Harikrishna, F. (2011). Study on the quality of water in some streams of Cauvery River. E-Journal of Chemistry 5(2), pp. 377-384.

Hertzman, C. (2010). Environmental and health in central and eastern Europe. A report for environmental action programme for central and eastern Europe, World Bank, Washington D.C., USA, pp 41-44.

Ezugwu, M.O (2018); Assessment of water quality characteristics of domestic boreholes using geographic information system (GIS); A case study of Benin City), PhD thesis submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City

Akporido, C.E., (2000). "A study of the Characteristics of Surface and Underground Water in Sapele and Ogharefe Oil Producing Areas of Delta State", The Nigeria J. Sci. Environ., 5(7): pp 65 -75

Ocheri, M.I.; Odoma, L.A. and Umar, N.D. (2014): "River water Quality in Nigeria Urban Areas: A Review". Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: Environment and Earth Science. Vol. 14, Issue 3, version 1.0, ISSN 2249-4626

Metcalf and Eddy. (2003). Wastewater Engineering, McGrew-Hills Book company.

Ajayi, S. O. and Osibanjo, O. (2013). Pollution studies in Nigeria Rivers II; Water quality of some Nigerian rivers. Environ. Pollut. Series 2: 87-95.

Adeniji, H. A. and Mbagu, G. I. (2012). Study and appraisal of the water quality of the Kontagora and Eku rivers. Kainji lake research and degradation of Nigerian aquatic environment on fisheries resources. Environ. 23(4), pp. 297-306.

Imevbore, A. M. A. (2014). The Chemistry of River Niger in Kainji Lake reservoir area. Arch. Hydrobiology 67: 412 - 413.

Asuquo, F. E. (2015). Physcio-chemical characteristics and anthropogenic pollution characteristics of Calabar Rivers, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 30: 31 -40.

Benka-Coker, M. O and Ojior, O.O. (2015). Effect of slaughter house waste on the quality of Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria. Bioresource Technol. 52: 5-12.

Ekhaise, F.O. and Anyasi, C.C. (2011). Influence of brewery effluent discharge on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of Ikpoba River, Nigeria, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Ilaboya, I. R., Oti, E. O., Ekoh, G. O., Umukoro, L. O., and Enamuotor, B. O. (2014). Assessment of water quality index of some selected boreholes around dump sites in Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Protection 1(2), pp. 47-55.

Rocchini, R., and Swain, L. G., (1995). The British Columbia water quality index, Water Quality Branch EP Department, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Land and park, Victoria, B.C. Canada, pp. 13-19.

Ipeaiyeda, A.R. and Onianwa, P.C. (2009). Impact of brewery effluent on water quality of the Olosun River in Ibadan, Nigeria. Chemistry and Ecology 25(3), 189 - 204.

Oladoja, N.A., Ademoroti, C.M.A and Asia, I.O. (2006). Treatment of industrial effluents using fortified soil-clay, Desalination 197(1-3), pp. 247-261

Rast, I. N. and Holland, M. (1998). Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs: A framework for making management decisions, Ambio 17, pp 2-12

Correl, D.L. (1988). The role of phosphorous in the eutrophication of receiving wastes: A review, Journal of Environ. Quality 27, pp 261-266

Qi, X., Luo, R. (2014). Sparse Principal Component Analysis in Hilbert Space. In: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

Wold, S., Esbensen, K., Geladi, P. (1987). Principal component analysis. In: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 2 (1-3), pp. 37-52.

Agunwamba, J.C. (2000): Water Engineering Systems. Immaculate Publications Limited, Enugu, Nigeria.

Okhakhu, P.A. (2010). The Significance of Climatic Elements in Planning the Urban Environment of Benin City, Nigeria, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Ekpoma-Nigeria: Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Ambrose Alli University.

How to Cite
Okonofua, E. S., Nwadialo, I. B., & Ekun, M. O. (2019). MODELING IKPOBA RIVER WATER QUALITY USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA) METHOD AND WATER QUALITY INDEX. Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology, 10(1), 59-74.