A 3-Stage Treatment System For Domestic Wastewater: Part II. Performance Evaluation
AbstractA 3-stage micro-scale wastewater treatment system that consisted of 1) a spiral-framed human hair-based filter, 2) a plastic medium mixed flow biotower, and 3) a free surface water wetland system filled with Pistia Stratiotes (water lettuce) operating in series was recently developed and performance tests were conducted. Performance tests were carried out to determine the efficiencies of the system for removal of physically emulsified and free oils, organic matters such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal-nitrogen, suspended solids,and nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium from semi-synthetic wastewaters. From this study, it was found that the human hair-based filter could retain approximately 73.5% of physically emulsified oils, while the mixed flow biotower was capable of reducing approximately 35.0% biochemical oxygen demand, 57.4% ammoniacal-nitrogen, 51.8% nitrogen, 13.4% phosphorus, 21.8% potassium, and 21.9% reduction in turbidity. The Pistia Stratiotes-based free surface water wetland was found to remove approximately 24.1% biochemical oxygen demand, 30.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen, 38.0% nitrogen, 41.5% phosphorus, 46.7% potassium and 31.7% reduction in turbidity. When the mixed flow biotower and free surface water wetland system were to operate in series, the combined removal efficiencies were approximately 59.2% for biochemical oxygen demand, 87.9% for ammoniacal-nitrogen, 90.6% for nitrogen, 54.9% for phosphorus, 68.5% for potassium, and 59.0% reduction in turbidity. Experimental data also showed that daily uptake rates (mg/kg-day) of organics and nutrients by per kilogram of Pistia Stratiotes were approximately 1,731 mg for biochemical oxygen demand, 1,015 mg for ammoniacal-nitrogen, 1,206 mg for nitrogen, 1,468 mg for phosphorus, and 5,431 mg for potassium.
S.H. Abdullatif, P.L. Law, H.H. Lau, A. Baharun. (2008). "Optimum coalescence plate arc length for removal of oil droplets from wastewaters." Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 2(3), pp. 247-259. Available: http://jestec.taylors.edu.my/Vol%202%20Issue%203%20December%2007/247-259%20Almarouf.pdf
G. J. Alaerts, M. R. Mahbubar, P. Kelderman. (1996). "Performance analysis of a fullscale duckweed covered sewage lagoon." Water Resources Development, 30(4), pp. 843-852. Available: doi:10.1016/0043-1354(95)00234-0
J. Arianne, "Can natural products pick up oil as effectively as polypropylene." Selah Science Project Grade 6 and 7 of 2002, 2006. Available: http://www.Selah.K12.Wa.Us/SOAR/Sciproj2002/Ariannej.Html -->
B. Barraza, P. Sanchez, "What makes the best oil spill cleaner: hair, cotton, or feathers," California State Science Fair 2001 Project Summary, 2001. Available: http://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2001/Projects/J0801.pdf
Brentwood Accupac Cross Flow Media, Brentwood Industries, 2004. Available: http://www.brentwoodprocess.com/crossflow.html
H. Brix, H Schierup. (1989). "The use of aquatic macrophytes in water pollution control," Ambio, 18(2), pp. 100-107. Available: http://mit.biology.au.dk/~biohbn/hansbrix/pdf_files/Ambio_1989_100-107.pdf
R.A. Corbitt, Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Mc-Graw Hill Publication, New York, United States of America (USA),1989.
M. Csuros, Environmental Sampling and Analysis, Lewis Publishers, CRC Press. New York, United States of America (USA), 1997.
A. Gray, "Logarithmic spirals," Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997, pp. 40-42.
A. Gray, "Logarithmic spirals." Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997, pp. 90-92.
R. Haberl, R. Perfler, H. Mayer. (1995). "Constructed wetlands in Europe," Water, Science and Technology, 32 (3), pp. 305-315. Available: http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/03203/0305/032030305.pdf
S.A. Haidar, "A Phase separator with inclined parallel arc coalescing plates (ipacp) for removal of physically emulsified and free oils from wastewater." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Malaysia, 2008. Available: http://cais-mill.unimas.my/search
M.J. Hammer, M.J.J. Hammer, Water And Wastewater Technology, Pearson Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, United States of America, 2004.
Instruction Manual: Oil Content Analyzer-OCMA-310, HORIBA, Japan, 2005. Available: http://www.horiba.cz/OCMA-310.pdf
S.P. Howard, D.R. Rowe, G. Tchobangolous, "Environmental engineering," Civil Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill International Editions, Singapore, 1985.
W. Kirchhof (1988). "Wastewater treatment in low cost bamboo biotowers and pond system," in Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop held in Cochin, India. Available: http://www.inbar.int/publication/txt/INBAR_PR_02.htm
S.S. Krishnan, A. Cancilla, R.E. Jervis. (1988). Wastewater treatment for heavy metal toxins using plant and hair as adsorbents. Pubmed, 68, pp. 267-73. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez
P. Kumar, R.J. Garde. (1989). Potentials of Water Lettuce for Sewage Treatment, Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 61 (11/12), pp 1702-1706.
P.L. Law, Y.W. Oon, L.H. Ngu. (2005). "A micro-scale wastewater treatment system for domestic effluents," Journal of Science and Technology in the Tropics, 1(2), pp. 147-155.
P.L. Law, L.H. Ngu, K.K. Wong, A.A. Rahman. (2006). Development and performance tests of a separator for removal of physically emulsified and free oils from wastewaters." Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM), 67(2), pp. 10-19. Available: http://www.iem.org.my/wapi/mctweb.dll/getObject?mid=IEMWEB-MAIN2&ObjID=225
L. Mandi. (1994). Marrakesh wastewater purification experiment using vascular aquatic plants eichhornia crassipes and lemna gibba. Water, Science & Technology, 29(4), pp. 283-287.
R. Mars, "Greywater Treatment with Macrophytes," Greywater Reuse Systems. Midland Business Centre, Washington,2004. Available: http://www.greywaterreuse.com.au/index.php/Greywater-Reuse-Systems/Greywater-Treatment-with-Macrophytes.html
E. J. Middlebrooks. (1995). Upgrading pond effluents: an overview. Water, Science & Technology, 31(12), pp. 353-368. Available: http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/03112/0353/031120353.pdf
National Research Council (NRC), "Using oil pollution dispersants on the sea." National Academy Press, Washington, D.C,1989. Available: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=736&page=R2
L.H. Ngu. "Development and optimization of a circular phase separator with dual angle coalescence plates for removal of suspended solids, free and physically emulsified oils from wastewaters." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 2008. Available:http://cais-mill.unimas.my/search
Y.W. Oon, "Development and performance evaluation of a 3-stage treatment system for domestic wastewater." M.Eng Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Malaysia, 2008. Available: http://cais-mill.unimas.my/search
Y.W. Oon, "A micro-scale wastewater treatment system for domestic effluents." B.Eng Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Malaysia, 2005. Available:http://cais-mill.unimas.my/search
G. Oron. (1990). "Economic considerations in wastewater treatment with duckweed for effluent and nitrogen renovation." Research Journal WPCF, 62(5), pp. 692-696. Available: http://www.jstor.org/pss/25043900
T.D. Reynolds, Unit Operations and Processes in Environmental Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America (USA), 1982.
J.F. Tamar, "Toil with oil," California State Science Fair 2004 Project Summary. 2004. Available: http://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2004/Projects/J08.pdf
G. Tchobangoglous, F.L. Burton, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, Third Edition. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., USA, 1991.
P. Tensie, "Oil absorbency of polypropylene pads vs. natural products." Selah Science Project Grade 6 and 7, 2006. Available:http://www.selah.k12.wa.us/soar/sciproj2006/TensieP.html
Wastewater technology fact sheet trickling filters, EPA 832-F-00-014, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Office of Water, Washington, D.C.,2000. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/trickling_filter.pdf
Wastewater technology fact sheet trickling filter nitrification, EPA 832-F-00-015, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Office of Water, Washington, D.C., 2000. Available: http://www.epa.gov/OWM/mtb/trickling_filt_nitrification.pdf
Upon acceptance of an article, the corresponding author on behalf of all authors will be asked to complete and upload the Copyright Transfer Form (refer to Copyright Issues for more information on this) alongside the electronic proof file.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and refer the publication in the Journal.
2) For open-access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds the copyright or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subjected to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) are responsible to ensure their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. The corresponding author has obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If the submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare that the researches which they have conducted comply with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving humans or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from the Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that they have no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor(s) or UNIMAS Publisher.