Physico-Mechanical, Morphological Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Palm Kernel Shell/Coconut Kernel Shell Elastomeric Polymer Nanocomposites

  • Josephine Chang Hui Lai Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
  • Nor Liyana Yusof Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
Keywords: Elastomeric polymer nanocomposites (EPNCs), polyvinyl alcohol, palm kernel shell, coconut kernel shell.


In this study, the physico-mechanical and morphological properties of polyvinyl alcohol/palm kernel shell/coconut kernel shell elastomeric polymer nanocomposites (PVA/PKS/CKS EPNCs) were investigated. PVA/PKS/CKS EPNCs were prepared via solution casting method and the properties of the elastomeric polymer nanocomposites were characterized through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile testing and moisture absorption test. Test results showed that increasing the PVA content increased the mechanical properties of elastomeric polymer nanocomposites as well as provided better surface morphology. However, beyond certain percentage of PVA content, the moisture absorption increased too. Therefore, 55wt% of PVA/PKS/CKS EPNCs was chosen as the best elastomeric polymer nanocomposites as it had the best overall properties from the aspect of physico-mechanical, morphological and moisture absorption.


Lai, J. C. H., Rahman, M. R. and Hamdan, S. (2017). Physical, Mechanical, Morphological and Thermal Analysis of Styrene-Co-Glycidyl Methacrylate/Fumed Silica/Clay Nanocomposites. Jurnal Teknologi, Vol. 79, No. 5, 1-10.

Lai, J. C. H., Rahman, M. R., Hamdan, S., Liew, F. K., Rahman, M. M. and Hossen, M. F. (2014). Impact of Nanoclay on Physicomechanical and Thermal Analysis of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Fumed Silica/Clay Nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 15, 41843(1-7).

Shanks, R. A. and Kong, I. (2013). General Purpose Elastomers: Structure, Chemistry, Physics and Performance, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Khan, I., Usmani, M. A., Bhat, A. H., Rather, J. A., Hassan, S. I. and Muman. (2017). Recent Progress on Rubber Based Biocomposites: From Carbon Nanotubes to Ionic Liquids, Springer International Publishing AG.

Itam, Z., Beddu, S., Mohd Kamal, N. L., Alam, M. A. and Ayash, U. I. (2016). The Feasibility of Palm Kernel Shell as a Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Lightweight Concrete. International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy and Technologies, Vol. 32, 1-5.

Hidayu, A. R. and Muda, N. (2016). Preparation and Characterization of Impregnated Activated Carbon from Palm Kernel Shell and Coconut Shell for CO2 Capture. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 148, 106-113.

King, P. J. (2013). Percolation effects in nanostructured thin films. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin.

Abdullah, S. S. and Yusup, S. (2010). Method for screening of Malaysian biomass based on aggregated matrix for hydrogen production through gasification. Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 10, 3301-3306.

Mphahlele, M. J., Maluleka, M. M., Rhyman, L., Ramasami, P. and Mampa, R. M. (2017). Spectroscopic, DFT, and XRD Studies of Hydrogen Bonds in N-Unsusbstituted 2-Aminobenzamides. Molecules, Vol. 27, No. 83, 1-14.

Ong, H. L., Toh, G. Y., Nik Adik, N. N. A. and Abdullah, M. M. A. B. (2016). Utilization of Modified Palm Kernel Shell for Biocomposites Production. Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 700, 60-69.

Alengaram, U. J., Jummat, Z. and Mahmud, H. (2008). Ductility Behavior of Reinforced Palm Kernel Shell Concrete Beams. European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, 406-420.

Majewski, L. Sikora, J. W. (2018). Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene Filled with Treated Neuburg Siliceous Earth. Technical Transactions, Vol. 8, 59-72.

Malakani, M., Bazyar, B., Talaiepour, M., Hemmasi, A. H. and Ghasemi, I. (2015). Effect of Acetylation of Wood Flour and MAPP Content During Compounding on Physical Properties, Decay Resistance, Contact Angle and Morphology of Polypropylene/Wood Flour Composites. BioResources, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2113- 2129.

Arib, R. M. N., Sapuan, S. M., Ahmad, M. M. H. M., Paridah M. T. and Khairul Zaman H. M. D. (2004). Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites. Materials and Design, Vol. 27, 391-396.

Acha, B. A., Marcovich N. E. and Reboredo, M. M. (2005). Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Jute Fabric Composites. Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 98, 639-650.

How to Cite
Lai, J. C. H., & Yusof, N. L. (2018). Physico-Mechanical, Morphological Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Palm Kernel Shell/Coconut Kernel Shell Elastomeric Polymer Nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering, 5(2), 296-303.