Identifying Urban Heat Effect through Satellite Image Analysis: Focusing on Narayanganj Upazila, Bangladesh
The rapid growth of population and land use cover change are closely connected. Narayanganj Sadar Upazila is the first Growing City in Bangladesh. Land use and land cover change are very first. Global warming, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental issues have become critical issues to address in recent times. Because of the Unplanned Expansion of urban areas, the LULC pattern is changing, and this kind of adverse (LST increasing, Heat Island Growth) impact is increasing. In this area, the amount of vegetation is decreasing day by day. The objectives of this study are to identify land use land cover (LULC) dynamics for the year 2001 to 2021, identify Urban Heat Islands from the value of land surface temperature (LST) and identify hotspots based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and land surface temperature (LST) doing weighted overlay among them. To determine the land cover pattern, and change at Narayanganj Upazila in the years 2001, 2011, and 2021, the land cover type was divided into four categories (build-up, vegetation, water bodies, and barren soil) in geographic information system (GIS) and Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) Imagine 2014. The overall accuracy of LULC in 2001, 2011, and 2021 was 90.08, 91.34, and 92.02, respectively. And the value of the kappa coefficient for the years 2001, 2011, and 2021 was 0.91, 0.89, and 0.90, respectively. This study demonstrates an increase of 14.22% in built-up area and destruction of 15.5% of vegetation, 3.26% of barren soil, and 1.05% of the waterbody in the previous 21 years in Narayanganj Upazila. This study will help the administration, agricultural directorates, Pourashava office, and city corporation authority to take necessary measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of land cover change. They can make new rules and regulations on the construction of buildings, restrictions on filling water bodies and measures to conserve vegetation.
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