Effects of Biodiesel Saturation Degrees on NOx Emission and FTIR Spectroscopy
AbstractThe Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic characteristics of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils with different saturation degree was investigated in this study. Unsaturation degree, usually determined by the Iodine Value (IV) indicates the sum of double bonds, triple bonds and/or rings. In this work, biodiesels were produced by canola oil, palm oil and coconut oil that have saturation degree of 7.0 wt%. 45.6 wt% and 81.5 wt%, respectively. Biodiesel blends of B10, B15 and B20 were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and the NOx emissions were measured with a flue gas analyser. The NOx emission was increased in all biodiesel cases, where the NOx emission seems to be proportional with the biodiesel unsaturation degree. The FTIR spectroscopy of each biodiesel was analysed with FTIR spectrometer. Each biodiesel produced different FTIR spectroscopy characteristics and the double bond of C=O was the most abundant in highly unsaturated canola oil methyl ester which suggested that FTIR spectroscopy can be suitable to analyse biodiesel characteristics.
Salvador M. A., Daniel L. F., Joel M., Smith J. R., Robert D., Michael A. and James G. (2001). HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments, SAE International Government/ Industry Meeting, Vol. 1, No. 2077.
Kim D. S. and Lee C. S. (2006). Improved Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine by Various Premixed Fuels and Cooled EGR, Fuel, Vol. 85, 695-704.
Joana M. D., Maria C. M. A and Manuel F. A. (2008). Mixtures of Vegetable Oils and Animal Fat for Biodiesel Production: Influence on Product Composition and Quality, Energy Fuels, Vol. 2, No. 6, 3889-3893.
Ozsezen A. N., Canakci M., Turkcan A. and Sayin C. (2009) Performace and Combustion Characteristics of a DI diesel Engine Fuelled with Waste Palm Oil and Canola Methyl Esters, Fuel, Vol. 88, 629-636.
Park H., Kim H. and Choi B. (2009) Emission Characteristics of Exhaust Gases and Nanoparticles from a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel (BD20), Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 23, 2555-2564.
Ismail S., Abu S. A., Rezaur R. and Sinin H. (2014) Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil and Its Application in Diesel Engine, ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development, Vol. 31, No. 2, 91-101.
Ganakci M. and Van Gerpen J. H. (2003) Comparison of Engine Performance and Emissions for Petroleum Diesel Fuel, Yellow Grease Biodiesel, and Soybean Oil Biodiesel, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 46, No. 4, 937-944.
Aizawa T., Abdullah M. F. E., Inoue A., Ishidzuka Y., Taki N. and Kosaka, H. (2012). Aromatic Additive Effects on Soot Formation in a Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (FTD) Spray Flame via Laser Spectroscopy, Proceedings of the 8th COMODIA, 275-280.
Pham P. X., Wang H., Brown R. J. and Masri A. R. (2013) Engine Performance Characteristics for Biodiesels of Different Degrees of Saturation and Carbon Chain Lengths, SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol. 6, No. 1, 188-198.
Abdullah M. F. E., Sulaiman M. H. and Abdul Majid N. A. (2014) NOx Emission of Diesel Fuel Blended with Different Saturation Degrees of Biofuel and with Oxygenator, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 660, 397-401.
Lapuerta M, Armas O, Ballesteros R. and Fernandez J. (2005) Diesel Emissions from Biofuels Derived from Spanish Potential Vegetable Oils, Fuel, Vol. 84, 773-780.
Lapuerta M, Armas O, and Fernandez J. (2008) Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Engine Emissions, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 34, 198-223.
Kent Hoekman S. and Robbins C. (2012) Review of the effects of biodiesel on NOx emissions, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 96, 237-249.
Varatharajan K. and Cheralathan M. (2012) Influence of fuel properties and composition on NOx emissions from biodiesel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, 3702-3710.
Pandey R., Rehman A. and Sarviya R. (2012) Impact of Alternative Fuel Properties on Fuel Spray Behavior and Atomization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, 1762-1778.
Monyem A., Van Gerpen J. H. and Canakci M. (2001) The Effect of Timing and Oxidation on Emissions from Biodiesel-Fuelled Engines, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 44, 35-42.
Barabas I., Todorut A. and Baldean D. (2010) Performace and Emission Characteristics of an CI Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Biodiesel-Bioethanol Blends, Fuel, Vol. 89, 3827-3832.
Knothe G., Sharp C. A. and Ryan III T.W. (2006) Exhaust Emissions of Biodiesel, Petrodiesel, Neat Methyl Esters, and Alkanes in a New Technology Engine, Energy Fuels, Vol. 20, 403-408.
Yuan W., Hansen A. C., Tat M. E., Van Gerpen J.H. and Tan Z. (2005) Spray, Ignition and Combustion Modeling of Biodiesel Fuels for Investigating NOx Emissions, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 48, No. 3, 933-939.
Ndana M., Grace J. J., Baba F. H. and Mohammed U. M. (2013) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometric Ana;ysis of Functional Groups in Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Ricinus Communis, Hevea Brasiliensis and Jatropha Curcas Seeds, International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1116-1121.
Giakoumis E. G. (2012) A Statistical Investigation of Biodiesel Physical and Chemical Properties, and Their Correlation with the Degree of Unsaturation, Renewable Energy, Vol. 50, 858-878.
Younis M. N., Saeed M.S. Khan S. Furqan M.U. Khan R.U. and Saleem M. (2009) Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Waste and Vegetable Oils, Journal of Quality and Technology Management, Vol. 50, No. 1, 111-121.
Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
To download Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal, click here