Biogas Production Optimization from POME by Using Anaerobic Digestion Process

  • Nazmus Shakib Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Mamunur Rashid Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
Keywords: Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio, Greenhouse Gas, Organic Loading Rate, Palm Oil Mill Effluent, Waste to Energy


The aim of this research is to optimize Biogas production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) with organic loading rate (OLR), carbon-to-nitrogen (C / N) ratio and pH using anaerobic processes. This study explores the potential of POME in anaerobic digestion with the perspective to develop a constructive process to treat POME and it can significantly contribute to biogas production. Design of Experiment (DoE) is used to determine the inputs (OLR, C/N, pH) for conducting research to achieve outputs (biogas production). Based on Central Composite Design (CCD), 5 levels of inputs for pH, C/N, and OLR are obtained. The findings of data analysis from Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that pH of 6.9, C/N of 30, and OLR of 6 VSS g/L.d have contributed to obtaining 3.8 L/day biogas production from POME. Treating POME anaerobically has proven to be successful because it is value-effective and environmentally friendly. The consequences of the research outcome in terms of environmental pollution are huge. The study suggests implementing a pilot scale study for producing required data is needed in developing economic scale POME treatment plant.


Nurul Adela, B., Muzzammil, N., Loh, S. K. and Choo, Y. M. (2014). Characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in an anaerobic biogas digester, Asian J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Environ. Sci., Vol. 16, No. 1, 225-231.

Babaee, A., and Shayegan, J. (2011). Effect of organic loading rates (OLR) on production of methane from anaerobic digestion of vegetables waste, In World Renewable Energy Congress-Sweden; 8-13 May 2011, Linkoping, Sweden.

Choi, W.-H., Shin, C.-H., Son, S.-M., Ghorpade, P. A, Kim, J.-J., and Park, J.-Y. (2013). Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors, Bioresource Technology, 141, 138-144.

Chen, Y., Rößler, B., Zielonka, S., Wonneberger, A.-M., and Lemmer, A. (2014). Effects of organic loading rate on the performance of a pressurized anaerobic filter in two-phase anaerobic Digestion. Energies, 7, 736-750.

Hosseini, S. E., and Abdul Wahid, M. (2013). Pollutant in palm oil production process, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 65, No.7, 773-781.

Lam, M. K., & Lee, K. T. (2011). Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): Win-win strategies toward better environmental protection, Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 29, No. 1, 124-141.

Madaki, Y. S., and Seng, L. (2013). Palm oil mill effluent (POME) from Malaysia palm oil mills : waste or resource, International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 2, No.6, 1138-1155.

Malakahmad, A., Lahin, F. A., and Yee, W. (2014). Biodegradation of high-strength palm oil mill effluent (POME) through anaerobes partitioning in an integrated baffled reactor inoculated with anaerobic pond sludge, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 225, No.3, 1883.

Shahidul, M.I., Malcolm, M. L, and Eugene, J. J. (2018) Methane production potential of POME : A review on waste-to-energy [MTE ] model, Sci Int, Vol. 30, No. 5, 717-728, 2018.

Shahidul, M. I., Malcolm, M. L., Eugene, J. J., and Mamunur, R. (2018). Optimization of factors affecting biogas production from POME, Sci Int, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 851-859, 2018.

Najib, M. Z. M., Ujang, Z., Salim, M. R., Ibrahim, Z. and Muda, K.(2016). Bioresource Technology reduction and biofixation of carbon dioxide in palm oil mill effluent using developed microbial granules containing photosynthetic pigments, Bioresour. Technol., Vol. 221, No. 2016, 157-164.

Okonkwo, U. C., Onokpite, E., and Onokwai, A. O. (2018). Comparative study of the optimal ratio of biogas production from various organic wastes and weeds for digester/restarted digester, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences. Vol. 30, No. 2, 123-129.

Osman, R. M., & Hamad, M. (2015). Anaerobic digestion of pulping wastewater using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at mesophilic condition, Online Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 15, No.3.

Rupani, P. and Singh, R. (2010), Review of current palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment methods: Vermicomposting as a sustainable practice, World Applied. Sciences Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 70-81.

R. A. Alrawi,R.A., Ahmad, A., Ismail, N. and Kadir, M. O. A. (2011). Anaerobic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent with rumen fluid as a co-substrate, Desalination, Vol. 269, No. 1-3, 50-57.

Krishnan, S., Singh, L., Sakinah,M., Thakur, S., Wahid, Z. A. and Sohaili J. (2016).Effect of organic loading rate on hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) production in two-stage fermentation under thermophilic conditions using palm oil mill effluent (POME), Energy Sustain. Dev., Vol. 34, 130-138.

Trisakti, B., Manalu, V., Taslim, I., and Turmuzi, M. (2015). Acidogenesis of palm oil mill effluent to produce biogas: effect of hydraulic retention time and Ph. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 195, 2466-2474.

Rajaletchumy, A.P.V. (2010). Evaluation of palm oil mill effluent (pome) by membrane anaerobic system (MAS), Doctoral dissertation thesis, University Malaysia Pahang.

Wang, J., Mahmood, Q., Qiu, J.-P., Li, Y.-S., Chang, Y.-S., and Li, X.-D. (2015). Anaerobic Treatment of palm oil mill effluent in pilot-scale anaerobic EGSB reactor, Biomed Research International, 2015(July), 7.

Wong, Y.-S., Teng, T. T., Ong, S.-A., Morad, N., and Rafatullah, M. (2014). Suspended growth kinetic analysis on biogas generation from newly isolated anaerobic bacterial communities for palm oil mill effluent at mesophilic temperature. RSC Advances, Vol. 4, No. 110, 64659-64667.

Wun, W. L., Chua, G. K., & Chin, S. Y. (2017). Effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) Treatment by activated, Journal Clean WAS, Vol. 1, No. 2, 6-9.

ChanY.J., and Chong, M.F. (2019) Palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment-current technologies, biogas capture and challenges, Green Technologies for the oil palm industry, Springer, Singapore. 71-92

Choy, Y.K. (2016). Can palm oil waste be a solution to fossil fuel scarcity and environmental sustainability? A Malaysian case study provides the answer, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Waste Management and the Environment (WM 2016), 97-108.

Yolmeh, M., and Jafari, S. M. (2017). Applications of Response Surface Methodology in the Food Industry Processes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 413-433.

How to Cite
Shakib, N., & Rashid, M. (2019). Biogas Production Optimization from POME by Using Anaerobic Digestion Process . Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering, 6(2), 369-377.