International Journal of Business and Society <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>International Journal of Business and Society (IJBS) is an international scholarly journal devoted to publishing high-quality papers using multidisciplinary approaches with a strong emphasis on business, economics and finance. It is a triannual journal published in April, August and December and all articles submitted are in English. Our uniqueness focus on the impact of the ever-changing world on society based on our niche area of research. IJBS follows a double-blind peer-review process, whereby authors do not know reviewers and vice versa. The journal intends to serve as an outlet for strong theoretical and empirical research and the papers submitted to IJBS should not have been published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. All manuscripts should be submitted electronically to the Editor in Chief (Professor Dr. Liew Khim Sen) at <a href=""></a>. The soft copy must be at least in Microsoft Office 97 (PC Version).&nbsp; Please make sure it is virus-free.</p> <br>For more information, kindly visit <a href=""></a></div> <div style="text-align: justify;"><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/ojsadm/IJBS3.jpg"></div> Faculty of Economics and Business, UNIMAS en-US International Journal of Business and Society 1511-6670 <p align="justify"><strong>Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal</strong></p> <p>1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal. <br><br>2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited. <br><br>3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online. <br><br>4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners. <br><br>5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher. <br><br>6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc<em>.</em>) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.</p> Financial Literacy and Financial Risk Tolerance of Lottery Gamblers in Thailand <p>This paper investigates the impacts of financial literacy level, financial risk tolerance and demographic characteristics on gambling behavior of informal laborers. The data were analyzed by Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Multinomial Logistic Regression. The total of 995 participants used in this research were collected by Multi-Stage Randomization from the informal laborers in Southern Thailand. The empirical analysis revealed that the financial literacy confidence, the risk tolerance, and the demographic characteristics were significant determinants of the gambler’s behavior. The older the gamblers were, the more they got addicted to gambling. Also, the more the people perceived that they have a high level of financial literacy, the more they would gamble. However, it was found that the female laborers were more frequent gamblers than the males. Thus, agencies responsible for supervising the financial education should be aware of the expected outcomes, not only focusing on actual financial literacy, but also supporting the individuals to achieve a healthy level of financial literacy confidence.</p> Dalina Amonhaemanon Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 633 648 10.33736/ijbs.4830.2022 Rural Residents’ Perceptions on the Poverty Alleviation and Governance in Sarawak, Malaysia <p>Poverty alleviation has continuously become one of the main concerns of the socio-economic policy worldwide. This crucial phenomenon is bounded on necessity toward monetary and comprehends by social, economic, political, and physiological aspects. In Malaysia, although the New Economic Policy in 1971 has succeeded in reducing the country's poverty incident, poverty's pocket continues to exist with high incidences of poverty among specific ethnic groups and localities. For instance, rural poverty among the Iban community in Sarawak has occurred since Malaysian independence. Therefore, this paper examines the rural residents' perceptions of the State's role in poverty alleviation in Sarawak using a qualitative approach. Findings revealed that although the government has various programs to alleviate poverty, the social assistance related to poverty was not efficiently distributed in Sarawak's rural areas. This study also revealed that a lack of social infrastructures, such as road accessibility, has significantly influenced social assistance's efficiency distribution in rural areas.</p> Peter Aning Tedong Zafirah Al Sadat Zyed Rohana Jani Fathin Amelina Fazlie Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 649 664 10.33736/ijbs.4831.2022 Factors Determining Libyan Banking Employees’ Readiness to Support the Transformation to a Full-Fledged Islamic Banking System <p>The purpose of this research is to examine the determinants of banking employees’ readiness to support the transformation to the full-fledged Islamic banking system in Libya. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and employing survey questionnaires of 323 employees of 10 conventional Libyan banks analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). This research revealed that the readiness of Libyan banks’ employees is influenced significantly and positively by attitudinal, religious and subjective norms. Moreover, attitude toward transformation is the most critical factor that determines readiness among bank employees. This indicates that bank employees are willing to support the transformation process toward Islamic banking. Due to the unstable security situation in Libya, this research is confined to two states (Tripoli and Benghazi). Further researches may extend applying the proposed model to other states in the country, which may enhance the generalisability of this research’s findings. Overall, this research provides support for the transformation process to Islamic banking as a way to evaluate the readiness of Libyan banking employees for such change. Also, this research emphasizes the importance of undertaking a pre-implementation evaluation of readiness for change in Libyan commercial banks.</p> Mohamed A. M. Abdulrahim El-Brassi Syed Musa Alhabshi Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman Ahmed Mohamed Mokhtar Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 665 688 10.33736/ijbs.4833.2022 Royal Family Members and Corporate Governance Characteristics: The Impact on Earnings Management in UA <p>This study examines the association between Royal family members on the board of directors and earnings management in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Panel data was sourced from the annual and corporate governance reports of companies listed in two leading markets in the UAE: Abu Dhabi Exchange Security (ADX) and Dubai Financial Market (DFM). Final data resulted in 437 observations for the period from 2011 to 2018. The findings of this study concluded that Royal family members on the board of UAE listed companies is negatively associated with earnings management. This study provides evidence of the role played by elite groups (Royal family members) in the UAE in enhancing the role played by the board of directors. The study also found that board meetings and audit committee meetings are positively associated with earnings management, while audit committee expertise and profitability negatively associated with earnings management. However, board size, board independence, audit committee independence, firm size and firm leverage had insignificant association with earnings management. The paper contributes to the existing theory and empirical evidence of how internal governance mechanisms add value to the company by reducing earnings management and enhancing the quality of financial reporting.</p> Mohammed Ali Almuzaiqer A. H. Fatima Maslina Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 689 713 10.33736/ijbs.4834.2022 Bilateral Trade and Investment Relations Analysis: Indonesia and South Korea <p>This paper attempts to assess potential opportunities and complementary cooperation of the bilateral economic relations of Indonesia and South Korea. On December 18th, 2020, both countries had officially signed the Indonesia-Korea CEPA. Indonesia has a big population for potential consumption and rich in primary products such as rubber, mineral, and palm oil. South Korea has immense potential in investment, light manufacture, and high-technology products and is classified as the most innovative country in the world for four consecutive years of 2016-2019 (Innovation Index, Bloomberg). This paper has two aims, first is assessing potential trade and long-run investment relations. It applies a combination calculation of RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage) and CMSA (Constant Market Share Analysis). The second is knowing the potential impacts both short-run and long-run after tariff rate removal using the GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model simulation. This paper found that Indonesia and South Korea can have complementary bilateral economic relations on trade and investment. Indonesia can learn how to avoid the Middle-Income Trap from South Korea experienced with manufacturing development. This paper showed that both countries could have mutual benefits in trade in the short-run and productivity improvement in the long-run.</p> Kiki Verico Teuku Riefky Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 714 750 10.33736/ijbs.4835.2022 Does Audit Committee Moderate the Relationship Between Auditor Independence and Earnings Management During Initial Implementation of MFRS in Malaysia? <p>This paper presents an evaluation of auditor independence concerns against the backdrop of current Malaysian corporate financial scandals by examining the relationship between auditor independence and earnings management, and the role of audit committees in overseeing auditor independence. The study used 1,035 firm-year data in the main market of Bursa Malaysia from 2012 to 2014 and employed multivariate regression analyses. The results revealed that when non-audit fees and total fees were higher, it could reduce the auditor’s independence as higher fees can create economic dependency on his clients. This study found that audit committee size and the frequency of meetings were positively related to earnings management. When testing the audit committee moderation on auditor independence, the study found that audit committee size and its frequency of meetings weaken the positive relationships between lower auditor independence and earnings management. These findings help regulators and professional bodies think about the impact of audit and NAS fees on auditor independence and the audit committee's oversight responsibility. To assess auditor independence, companies should form a fully independent audit committee in accordance with the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance 2021 (Securities Commission of Malaysia, 2021).</p> Damien Iung Yau Lee Lian Kee Phua Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 751 772 10.33736/ijbs.4836.2022 Do Analysts’ EPS Forecasts Obey Benford’s Law? An Empirical Analysis <p>Benford’s law gives the expected frequencies of digits in tabulated data. In this study, I investigate the extent to which a sample of analysts’ earnings per share (EPS) forecasts obey Benford’s law. I conduct Benford’s law’s second digit and last-two digits tests on a sample of analyst EPS forecasts of S&amp;P 500 firms from 1998 to 2018. Overall, I find that analysts’ EPS forecasts obey Benford’s law’s second digit test but do not obey the last-two digits test. These findings suggest that while analysts do not engage in number invention, they do engage in rounding when making EPS forecasts.</p> Clarence Goh Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 773 785 10.33736/ijbs.4837.2022 Investing in Islamic Fixed Deposit Accounts: A Technology Acceptance Model Perspective <p>This study is aimed at explaining the factors determining consumer acceptance of online Islamic fixed deposit accounts. Besides, the mediating role of attitude is also examined. Considering the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), this study evaluates the impacts of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use along with attitude on consumer acceptance using a survey questionnaire. In terms of findings, PLS results suggest that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and attitude are instrumental in determining consumer acceptance. Attitude also serves as a valid mediator for the model developed. Likewise, the topic of this study is focused on consumer acceptance instead of actual behaviour along with its limited number of factors examined. The results obtained provide a benchmark to managers of Islamic banks to promote online transactions among bank customers on Islamic fixed accounts. Besides, this study expands the TAM’s application to include online Islamic fixed deposit accounts.</p> Hanudin Amin T. Ramayah Dwi Suhartanto Muhammad Ali Dzuljastri Abdul Razak Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 786 801 10.33736/ijbs.4838.2022 Factors Influencing the Purchase of Circular Economy Products: A Comparative Analysis of Malaysia and Turkey <p>Irresponsible production and consumption of products are the main reason for environmental decimation. To mitigate this alarming burden on the environment, a new approach has been proposed, called “The Circular Economy”. The main objective of this system is to introduce new systems of production, consumption, and disposal, for growing global prosperity. This philosophy is also aligned with the United Nations goals of sustainability, commonly known as SDGs, particularly, the goal of responsible production and consumption (SDG No. 12). Circular economy from a marketing perspective has been hardly explored and/or investigated. This research, therefore, attempts to extract and empirically investigate those critical factors related to the circular economy that have an impact on consumer behaviour in general, and consumer purchase intention in particular. For this purpose, the theory of planned behaviour is adapted with the addition of two more factors related to the circular economy, which are convenience/ availability, and environmental impact, as extracted from the literature to examine their effect on consumer purchase intention. Data were collected from two countries; Malaysia and Turkey, to undertake the comparative analysis. A total of 377 consumers of circular products from Malaysia, and 351 consumers from Turkey, were used for data analyses. Complex statistical techniques like exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling with confirmatory factor analysis and hypotheses testing were used to analyse the data. Comparative analyses were undertaken, where each finding from Malaysia and Turkey were compared, including structural model comparison. Interesting findings emerged, which will certainly contribute to helping policy-makers devise strategies that are not only sustainable and aligned with the philosophy of the circular economy but will also ensure positive consumer behaviour.</p> Muhammad Tahir Jan Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 802 819 10.33736/ijbs.4839.2022 Impact of Country of Origin on Brand Love: An Empirical Study of Select Denim Jeans Brands <p>This research paper aims to analyze the impact of attitude towards country of origin on brand love for some select US and Indian denim jeans brands. Further the impact of brand love is also studied on loyalty and word of mouth. Survey based research using convenience sampling was used for data collection using self-administered questionnaires. The study has used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS 20 for data analysis. The empirical analysis shows that the attitude toward the country of origin does not impact the feelings of brand love. However, it was found that brand love impacts loyalty and word of mouth considerably. The findings have been derived from the sample of students from one university. Also, the study has not taken into account high-end fashion brands, thus limiting the generality of the findings to all brands. The findings provide a new dimension called brand love which both the foreign and domestic brands must give due credence to when framing of their branding strategies. By aiming to assess the relationship between the constructs of country of origin and brand love, for which sparsely few studies are found in the existing literature, this paper contributes to the growth of literature in the field of brand love.</p> Suzanee Malhotra Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 820 833 10.33736/ijbs.4840.2022 Comparison of Stock Selection Methods: An Empirical Research On The Borsa Istanbul <p>This paper compares the performances of stock selection methods developed by artificial neural network (ANN), second order stochastic dominance (SSD), and Markowitz portfolio optimization by generating annual portfolios whose stocks are selected from several types of indexes traded in the Borsa Istanbul. Daily returns in SSD and Markowitz, and annual ratios in ANN models, are taken as inputs, with the following annual returns as outputs. By the perspective of stock selection literature, this study carries unique value for including comparisons of these methods with the purpose of generating portfolios with higher returns. Thus, two questions emerge: "Are these methods able to overcome losses during financial crises and bear or bull periods, and can they provide positive alpha?" Results indicate that average returns of portfolios generated by ANN are relatively higher than SSD and Markowitz, but all three models provide positive alpha over indexes. However, none of the models could overcome negative returns during economic crises.</p> Ali Sezin Ozdemir Kaya Tokmakcioglu Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 834 854 10.33736/ijbs.4841.2022 Cashless Payments and Banking Performances: A Study of Local Commercial Banks in Malaysia <p>The banking industry plays a facilitatory role in moving toward a cashless society. This study investigates the impacts of cashless payments (ATM, internet banking, mobile banking, credit card, debit card, charge card and e-money) on banking performance for eight local commercial banks in Malaysia over the period of 2005 to 2018. The findings show that cashless payments are positively related to the return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) of banks, except e-money. Furthermore, the study demonstrates cashless payments have improved the cost-to-income ratio of banks, except ATMs. Meanwhile, this study disaggregates the sample into subperiod analysis to further examine the transition effect of cashless payments on banks’ performance. The results show that banks’ profitability performance is mainly driven by the usage of cashless payments in the first wave of progressive development, while cashless payments do not show progressive impact on banks’ efficiency performance. This suggests that cashless payments do not add value to banks’ performances in the long run.</p> Ming-Pey Lu Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 855 876 10.33736/ijbs.4842.2022 Dispositional Dimension of Trust on Customer Interaction with the Banking Sector: A Smartpls Approach <p>This study explores the influence of dispositional dimension of trust, including propensity to trust, faith in humanity, and trust stance in the banking sector. The research was performed in banks located within the Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. A questionnaire was distributed to 500 account holders from 10 commercial banks, where respondents were allowed to pick their preferences on the basis of a 5-point Likert scale, and an analysis was carried out using PLS-SEM version 3.2. The findings indicated that propensity to trust, such as experience acquired overtime, religious belief, and positive feelings; faith in humanity, such as dependability, suitability, and confidentiality; and trust stance, such as reliability and quality of information delivered to individual positively influence customer interaction with the banking sector. The findings raise awareness to the bank executive and policymakers of factors influencing customer confidence in a bank and also contribute to retaining and attracting them within the system.</p> Abdulrahman Bada Bello Premalatha Karupiah Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 877 894 10.33736/ijbs.4843.2022 Malaysian Chinese CEOs and Firm Performance <p>This paper investigates whether Malaysian Chinese CEOs produce higher firm performance, in particular, the effect of ethnicity on financial performance from cultural dimensions. While the cultural dimension receives widespread attention in economics and sociology research, it has received much less attention in finance studies. The data covered were hand collected information on CEOs and board characteristics of firms listed in Bursa Malaysia over the 2009-2015 period. Using panel regression, the study documented empirical evidence that Malaysian Chinese CEOs deliver higher firm performance, especially if they graduated from overseas. Results are consistent even after controlling for firm level corporate governance characteristics. The findings suggest that Malaysian Chinese CEOs possess some quality traits that enable them to deliver higher firm performance. This is not only due to their cultural beliefs, but education profile as well. These findings contribute practical implications for CEO selection in corporations.</p> Foong Swee Sim Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 895 912 10.33736/ijbs.4844.2022 The Moderating Role of Organisational Support Towards Achieving a Good Work-Life Balance in the New Normal: A Malaysian Lecturers’ Perspective <p><br>This study aims to examine the role of organisational support as a moderator in the relationship between emotional intelligence, job engagement, and the work-life balance of Malaysian lecturers. A quantitative approach with a structured questionnaire was used for data collection and it was distributed to the randomly selected population of lecturers via their respective emails. The sample of this study consisted of 132 lecturers from public and private universities in Malaysia. Descriptive statistics and statistical inference were conversant in analysing the correlation and multiple regression using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25.0. The finding concludes that an increase in emotional intelligence and job engagement further increases the ability of the lecturer to achieve a good work-life balance. The results also indicate that organisational support does not affect the relationship between emotional intelligence, job engagement, and work-life balance. Besides, the study failed to find the influence of organisational support as a moderator on the work-life balance among lecturers in Malaysia. The implication of the study is crucial for institutions and management to be alert to the situational needs of the lecturers to ensure work and life expectations are optimised without ignoring other variables.</p> Mokana Muthu Kumarasamy Farhana Hasbolah Hanissah Hamzah Khairun Natasha Mohd Fazmi Siti Aisyah Omar Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 913 930 10.33736/ijbs.4845.2022 Facilitate Affective Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the Technology Employees in the Chinese IT Companies <p>This study aims to understand the antecedents of affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCBO) of technology employees in Chinese IT Companies. Job satisfaction, which is a positive job attitude is identified as the mediator for the relationships between family-supportive supervisor (FSS), challenge job demands, and affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCBO) of the technology employees in the Chinese IT Companies. IT industry is a promising industry in China. However, the Chinese IT companies have an overtime culture, which is highly related to the commitments of the technology employees. PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling) by Smart PLS 3.2 version software is adopted for the data analysis, which includes the measurement model and structural model analysis. 304 technology employees from three Chinese IT companies participated in this research survey. After the data analysis, challenge job demands and FSS are positively related to job satisfaction while FSS is directly connected with affective commitment and OCBO of the technology employees in Chinese IT companies. Moreover, job satisfaction plays a positively mediating role between the exogenous variables and endogenous variables in this study. The current research provides useful insights into the strategies taken that could enhance affective commitment and OCBO of the technology employees in Chinese IT companies.</p> Shi Hu Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 931 948 10.33736/ijbs.4851.2022 The Influence of Service Quality and Corporate Image of Royal Brunei Airlines: A Partial Least Square Approach <p>The hospitality and tourism industries have become the pivotal industries that contribute to the growth of the nation's economy. However, fewer studies pay attention to the aviation industry where this industry has faced a lot of challenges and crises in the past decade. Hence, this study aims to examine the effects of service quality on the corporate image of Royal Brunei Airlines. The study utilized the SERVQUAL model to guide the study. A quantitative (survey) research design was employed using a total of 178 completed questionnaires obtained from the customers of Royal Brunei Airlines through purposive sampling. The data were then analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling through Smart-PLS 3.2.7. The results revealed that three (3) dimension of SERVQUAL (assurance, responsiveness, tangibles) has a positive and significant relationship with corporate image. However, empathy and reliability were found not significant to corporate image. Conclusion, implications, and suggestions for future study were also discussed.</p> Tak-Jie Chan Nurin Zahiah Irwan Nor Azura Adzharuddin Hon-Tat Huam Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 949 966 10.33736/ijbs.4852.2022 Exploring Perceived Organisational Support and Resilience as Antecedents of Expatriates’ Work and Non-Work Spheres Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>Expatriates face more challenges when they are exposed to hostile environments in a foreign country. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most expatriates are stranded abroad without adequate support mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the role of perceived organisational support (POS) and resilience in predicting expatriates’ perception of non-work constraints and work adjustment, and in turn, their withdrawal intention. Using the convenience sampling, questionnaire data was collected through social networking platforms from 205 expatriates across various industries in Malaysia. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling was employed to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that POS is influential in expatriates’ resilience, but not in their perceived non-work constraints and work adjustment. Spillover effects occur when perceived non-work constraints influence withdrawal intention. However, perceived non-work constraints are not significantly related to work adjustment. Further, work adjustment has a negative relationship with withdrawal intention. The results indicate that organisations should customise their human resource policies to improve expatriates’ resilience through webinars and counselling services during the COVID-19 crisis, which are likely to impact their work outcomes. The contribution of this study is its application of the conservation of resources theory to enrich the sparse literature on expatriation in a hostile environment.</p> Hak Liong Chan Dahlia Zawawi Pei Sung Toh Shian Mun Emily Gunn Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 967 986 10.33736/ijbs.4853.2022 Modelling the Significance of Global Mind-Set and Halal Brand Trust to Determine the Performance of Halal SMEs <p>This study investigated the impact of global mind-set (GM) and halal brand trust (HBT) on halal entrepreneurial performance (HEP). This study extends the entrepreneurship literature by adopting the dynamic capability theory (DCT) to assess HEP. Data were collected from 311 SMEs established in Indonesia using the simple random sampling method, whereas the variance-based partial least-square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach was used for test the proposed conceptual model. This study revealed the significant effect of GM and HBT upon HEP. Additionally, entrepreneurial competency (EC) and effectual logic (EL) displayed partially mediating effects. This study found that online food delivery (OFD) had strengthened the relationship between EC and HEP. Nevertheless, EC had no statistical impact on EL, while OFD negatively affected the GM-HEP link. Due to the limited scope of this study, the cross-sectional approach adopted in this study is viewed as a limitation. Besides, constriction in time had led this study to be conducted within a specified time-frame. As such, future studies may adopt the longitudinal approach over a period of three to five years in order to overcome the listed limitations. This study assessed the effect of GM and HBT on HEP as fresh insight to better comprehend the determinants of HEP in uncertain condition. This study has extended the theory of Teece et al. (1997) DCT within the context of HEP. Upon determining the effect of two new constructs (GM and HBT) through the lens of DCT and validating the proposed model, this study offers theoretical and contextual contributions to the overall body of knowledge with PLS-SEM.</p> Marvello Yang Norizan Jaafar Sin Kit Yeng Abdullah Al Mamun Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 987 1004 10.33736/ijbs.4854.2022 Do Corporate Governance Mechanisms Truly Act as the Drivers of Shareholder Value in the Banking Sector in Bangladesh? Evidence from the Economic Profit Perspective <p>This study examines whether corporate governance mechanisms (CGMs) truly act as the drivers of shareholder value (SV) in the banking sector in Bangladesh from the economic profit perspective. The study employs a random-effects model to test hypotheses in a sample of 29 banks listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange for the period 2014–2018. Relying on the test results of CGMs on SV measured from the economic profit perspective, this study finds that only the independent audit committee acts as a driver of truly creating shareholder value. Contrary to expectations, other CGMs in the analysis (e.g. board size, independent non-executive directors, audit committee size, audit committee meetings, and institutional shareholding) are not found to create true shareholder value. The outcomes of the study are a matter of concern for the regulatory bodies of the Bangladeshi banking sector and institutions involved in constructing the code of corporate governance, as the existing CGMs are suboptimal in the sense that they do not truly act as value-driving mechanisms for shareholder value.</p> Mohammad Kamal Hossain Md. Shajul Islam Md Moslahur Reza Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1005 1024 10.33736/ijbs.4855.2022 Gender Discrimination in the Absence of Discrimination Laws: Evidence from Malaysia <p>This study aims to estimate gender discrimination in the labour market by using fictitious job applicants, carrying gender identifiable names at the top of the curriculum vitae. Fictitious job applications were sent to genuine vacancies in Malaysia. An audit experiment was conducted on new graduate employment in a labour market with no legislation against discrimination. We recorded if there was a significant difference in call-back interview rates. We estimated the extra amount of applications females would need to make to obtain the same number of interview calls as males. Results show a female bias in call-backs was evident only in broader markets that traditionally offer female employment.</p> Wai Ching Poon Gareth D. Leeves Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1025 1041 10.33736/ijbs.4856.2022 Exploring the Intention to Cheat Among Undergraduate Students through the Lens of the Theory of Planned Behaviour <p>The escalation of academic dishonesty cases is becoming alarming. This study uses the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and conscientiousness as an antecedent of the intention to cheat. Data were collected through electronic and paper forms. Partial least squares path modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the responses from 917 undergraduate students in a Malaysian public university. The results support that conscientiousness is a valid predictor of the intention to cheat among students. Further, the three constructs of the TPB, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and attitude, significantly mediated the conscientiousness-intention to cheat relationship. Researchers are encouraged to test the model in private universities and other countries. This study is the first to study the intention to cheat among undergraduate students in Malaysia using conscientiousness as an antecedent of the TPB model. Implications for ethics education and research are discussed.</p> Mohd Yusoff Yusliza Olawole Fawehinmi Nik Hazimah Nik Mat Monizaihasra Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1042 1065 10.33736/ijbs.4857.2022 Mediation of Psychological Capital on Human Resource Management Practices and Firm Financial Performance <p>The purpose of the study is to examine the mediating effect of psychological capital on the relationship between human resource management practices and financial performance in small businesses in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect data from a sample of 401 small businesses operating within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The findings show that human resource management practices, psychological capital and financial performance are positively correlated to one another. Moreover, through hierarchical regression analyses, psychological capital was found to partially mediate the relationship between human resource management practices and financial performance. Based on the findings of the research, small business owners/managers can use the study results to develop strategies and interventions that can enable their firms to thrive.</p> Jolly Kabagabe Byarugaba Samuel Mafabi MTutuzeli Dywili Bagorogoza Janatti Kyogabiirwe Willie Chinyamurindi Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1066 1085 10.33736/ijbs.4858.2022 Tourism and Economic Growth Nexus in Maldives: Asymmetric Analysis and Role of ICT <p>The relentless spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, which began in the first quarter of 2020, aided by the periodical emergence of new variants, is continuing to inflict unprecedented damages on the global economy. Interruptions in international travel have led to the collapse of the tourism-related service industry, which is the backbone of the economies of many small islands and developing states. This paper focuses on the Maldives, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, which is one of the top ten most tourism-dependent economies. Adopting the Solow production function, the paper examines the tourism and economic growth relationship using nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) methodology. The analysis shows that tourism earnings and economic growth have a significant asymmetric relationship. The result further reveals that the magnitude of the negative impact of the decline of a given size in tourism earnings on growth is of much larger magnitude than that of the positive impact of the same size rise in tourism earnings. The negative impact of tourism is found to be more pronounced in the long run. ICT spread, measured by the rise in mobile subscriptions, is positively associated with growth and has emerged as a significant contingent factor. We suggest policy measures to step up the recovery progress and growth.</p> TK Jayaraman Keshmeer Makun Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1086 1105 10.33736/ijbs.4859.2022 Sustainability Perspectives of Market-Pulled and Crisis-Pushed Corporate Spin-Offs <p>Are there different wealth effects for Corporate Spin-offs (CSOs) during economic crisis viz non-crisis and do their performance matter? The answer is crucial for market players investment decisions and CSOs research underpinning impact on sustainability. Reviewing predominantly three papers on Malaysian CSOs, inter-alia, other papers globally, there was an explanation gap on the magnitude, speed, significance, and sustainability of CSO wealth in terms of financial market conditions at the timing of CSOs and CSOs’ performance. After remedying event-induced volatility and cross-sectional correlations, wealth effects were analysed using ninety Malaysian CSOs from 1987 to 2019. We found Crisis-pushed CSOs during weak market conditions had dwindling short-term gains implying weak sustainability contrary to Market-pulled CSOs that demonstrated strong sustainable long-term gains. Pushed CSOs achieved adversely -0.81%, and, Positive performance CSOs have earning potential 14.12% compared to Negative performance CSOs with losing potential -16.08%. CSOs' determinants changed when subjected to market-based criteria and performance-based criteria suggested CSOs' wealth effect oblivious to market conditions and performance were not reliable for gauging CSO expectations. Performance-based criteria subsampling revealed that the composition of generalized CSOs return is not positively dominant and have equal potential to gain and risk of loss.</p> Teik-Wei Yoon Chung-Sin Yoon Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1106 1126 10.33736/ijbs.4860.2022 Homestay Service Experience for Tourist Satisfaction and Sustainability Amidst Covid-19 Challenges <p>Although tourist homestay experience has been commonly recognized as an important criterion for community-based and eco-friendly destination loyalty, not much is known about the measurement of its service experience. A scientific inquiry into the tourist experience will be an essential differentiation tool for sustainable competitive advantage in this alternative hospitality sector. Our research aims to develop a measure of homestay service experience and to use this measure to investigate the influence of homestay service experience on tourists’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Specifically, the HomeServE inventory is established through qualitative and quantitative processes. Focus group interviews and questionnaire survey techniques were employed. A total of 866 usable questionnaires were obtained from the nationwide survey. Reliability and validity analyses were done on the measurement items. Measurement and relationship analyses were done using the confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Eight dimensions (32 items) of homestay service experience were identified (i.e., Culture, Guiding Service, Food and Beverage, Environment, Cleanliness, Accommodation, Services, and Accessibility). The measurement and model fit indices were found to be satisfactory. This newly found multi-dimensional construct of tourist service experience is in line with tourist-oriented service management. It was found that service experience has a direct positive effect on tourists’ satisfaction. Managerial and research implications of the measurement were discussed for more effective tourist experience management.</p> Boo Ho Voon Teck Weng Jee Corina Joseph Muhammad Iskandar Hamzah Patricia Melvin Jussem Ai Kiat Teo Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1127 1146 10.33736/ijbs.4861.2022 The Influence of Extrinsic Motivating Factors on Employees’ Work Performance at Banking Sectors in Malaysia: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Ownership <p>This study investigates the influences of extrinsic motivating factors on employees' work performance in banking sectors in Malaysia when the psychological ownership act as mediating effect existed. Generally, this study analyses three independent variables, categorized as extrinsic (working condition, job security, and company policy) motivating factors on the dependent variable of employees' work performance when psychological ownership acts as a mediating effect in banking sectors in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine employee work performance issues, namely, poor service quality, poor communication, high employee turnover, and work-related stress in Malaysian banking sectors. The research tools used in this study were personal distribution and online mail questionnaires. A total of 3700 frontline employees were selected for the questionnaire, but only 370 respondents are fit for further analysis. The survey data was gathered within a one-month duration. The findings revealed that work conditions and company policy have a significant favourable influence on psychological ownership. The following results show that psychological ownership positively mediates the relationship between company policy and work conditions with work performance. A theoretical framework has been constructed based on Herzberg's Theory of hygiene factors used in this research. The outcome of this study would help bank management introduce practical strategies for improving the employees' work performance which leads to business growth.</p> Kamalesh Ravesangar Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1147 1168 10.33736/ijbs.4862.2022 Probability of Corporate Bankruptcy: Application to Portuguese Manufacturing Industry SMEs <p>This paper aims to develop a model for predicting corporate bankruptcy for SMEs in the Portuguese manufacturing industry where this question remains rather unaddressed. Using profitability, activity, liquidity, leverage, and solvency ratios, it was added the size and age variables, for a group of 208 firms, including 49 bankrupt firms and 159 active firms, during the years 2011 to 2015. The logit model allowed us to estimate a model with 82.3% of predictive capacity. The most important variables identified were profitability, solvency, and size. Estimations only with the data closest to the bankruptcy date improved predictive capacity. It is evidenced that financial and non-financial variables can predict bankruptcy probability. A possible future approach would be to analyze a larger sample. Also, a larger period could be considered, allowing to test either the effects of the 2007/8 crisis or the effects of the recent economic turmoil related to Covid-19. Important for both corporate managers and investors. Conclusions may be disclosed regarding the influence that economic turmoil certainly has on corporate defaults and bankruptcies allowing its extension to other countries. The contribution of this paper is to find the best specification for a bankruptcy prediction model applied to the Portuguese manufacturing industry SMEs. This paper also contributes to the existing literature by using non-financial variables and analyzing a sector still unexplored in Portugal, albeit its conclusions can be extended to other countries.</p> Luís Pacheco Mara Madaleno Pedro Correia Isabel Maldonado Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1169 1189 10.33736/ijbs.4863.2022 The Mediating Effect of Trust in the Relationship Between Reputation and Opportunism Towards Commitment to Paying Zakat <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence drivers for zakat payers to commit to paying zakat through the official zakat institutions. To execute this study, the Stimulus Organism Response (SOR) theory was used as the basis of the investigation in which stimuli will invite attention or interest from the recipients and produce responses. Data were collected through a survey questionnaire that asked the respondents’ opin-ions on reputation, opportunism, trust, and commitment from a mass Islamic lecture. We employed the Partial Least Squares program named Warp-pls 5.0 to analyse the data. The result shows that the reputation of the zakat institution stimulates zakat payers to trust it and commit to paying zakat. Nevertheless, opportunism is not been proved statistically. The result shows that the zakat institution must maintain and improve its reputa-tion and look for other factors to stimulate zakat payers to pay zakat to the official institution for bigger zakat.</p> Riza Reni Yenti Aza Azlina Md Kassim Astri Yulia Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1190 1207 10.33736/ijbs.4866.2022 Social Responsibility Practices as a Factor in Economic Benefits <p>Social responsibility shows an influential evolution at a global level, and the issue is increasingly being observed in alignment with the budgets of organizations. Therefore, some financial institutions interested in regaining the confidence of their investors are voluntarily assuming a set of practices, initiatives, standards, and instruments of international support that take into account both the interest of the organization and the well-being of the interested parties in economic, social and environmental matters. This article focuses on the financial groups that make up the Sustainable Price and Quotation Index, where the evolution and maturity of the information published on their social responsibility practices are examined, and the economic benefit they obtain is evaluated. After the research, it is observed that belonging to a sustainable index contributes to the inclusion of best practices; however, no evidence belonging to the Sustainable IPC influences the economic benefit of the analyzed groups.</p> Lorena Miranda Navarro Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1208 1228 10.33736/ijbs.4867.2022 Do Determinants Influence the Capital Structure Decision in Bangladesh? A Panel Data Analysis <p>More than two decades, capital structure decision marked as variation from optimal decisions as determinants are not properly considered due to the collapse of corporate governance. This study examines the impact of determinants on capital structure decisions in Bangladesh using Fixed-Effect Model (FEM) and Panel Corrected Standard Error (PCSE). The study revealed that debt structure is considerably influenced by liquidity, firm size, asset structure, non-debt tax shield, and operational age of companies. The study also indicates that the companies, which are not financially, sound, but used more debt because the owners of such companies are politically empowered in stock market. The firms that hold less fixed assets (as a percentage of total assets, particularly the family-run and politically affiliated firms used more debt regardless of their tax bracket, profitability and growth—showed a greater capacity for increased debt. This study primarily focused on financial framework to make capital structure decision based on related determinants.</p> Mohammad Nazim Uddin Mohammed Shamim Uddin Khan Mosharrof Hosen Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1229 1248 10.33736/ijbs.4868.2022 The Mediating Effects of Student Attitudes on the Learning Preferences and Perceived Academic Stress Towards Online Education <p>The study investigates the association of the learners' preferences of students and perceived academic stress and the mediating impact of students’ attitudes towards online education. The study participants were the students of the seven major universities and colleges in Ilocos Norte, and they were chosen using a convenience sampling technique. The study employed a quantitative research design and a casual research approach to measure the relationship between learning preferences and perceived academic stress and the mediating effect of students’ attitudes towards online education. Using linear regression, the findings revealed a low positive relationship between learning preferences and perceived academic stress. Moreover, concerning the mediating effect of the students’ attitudes towards online education, using structural equation modelling, the results were that there was an established effect. Implications, conclusions, and recommendations were also provided in the study.</p> Eric S. Parilla Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1249 1266 10.33736/ijbs.4869.2022 Marketing and Its Impact on Service Quality in the Healthcare Industry of Pakistan <p>The quality of healthcare services in every society has been a dire need across each era. The effective implementation of which is only possible if the healthcare workers get provided with a suitable environment to perform their duties in. Considering this, the current study determines the impact of internal marketing on the quality of external services delivered to the patients in the labor-intensive healthcare industry of Pakistan. Further, the mediatory role of internal service quality between the said variables is taken into account. The survey-based study was conducted in the twin metropolitans of Pakistan (Islamabad &amp; Rawalpindi). The collected data from 500 individuals comprised of internal customers i.e. doctors, staff members, and external customers i.e. patients, of the public sector as well as private sector hospitals. The study conclusively suggested a significantly positive impact of internal marketing over the external service quality; in both service sectors. Though the public-sector healthcare organizations were found to be comparatively more effective in the implementation of service quality delivered to its customers, in contrast to the private sector healthcare institutions.</p> Saqib Mehmood Muhammad Umer Muhammad Mohsin Zahid Ahsen Maqsoom Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1267 1285 10.33736/ijbs.4870.2022 The Role of Relational Trust During Covid-19 Pandemic among University Students <p>In response to the Corona Virus diseases 2019 (Covid-19) crisis, the university students became as one of the Malaysian concern especially when they are stranded while the MCO has been exposed by the government. To reduce the impact on psychological pressure, the university via health center and student accommodation center were instructed to function as social support units. Besides food and other necessaries, the information regarding to Covid-19 and crisis management needs to be disseminated. We sampled stranded university students from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) using simple random sampling. With 275 responses, results of multiple mediation regression analysis indicated that the role of relational trust mediates the relationship between crisis responsibility and willingness to seek information. However, gender differences were not influence the behavior and willingness towards seeking the information. It is suggested that the relational trust among UiTM students were influenced by the service quality offered by the centers, thus inculcate them to discover more information with regards to Covid-19 outbreak.</p> Shahsuzan Zakaria Muhammad Faizal Samat Azizan Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1286 1296 10.33736/ijbs.4871.2022 Does Gender Differences Matter! Investigating the Prejudiced Practices and Gender-Role Conflict Among Female Professionals Working in Male-Dominated Professions <p>This study investigates the perceptions of gender role conflict, prejudice practices, office stress, and their impact on female professionals working in male-dominated professions. The paper's concepts and contexts are grounded on the role of congruity theory and transactional theories of stress. A survey was conducted in different institutions of Pakistan and Malaysia. A conceptual model was then developed on five crucial hypotheses on broad-ranging literature analyses using statistical analyses and structural equation modeling with Smart-Partial Least Square (PLS). The findings reveal that females find it difficult to seek the top executive positions as assertive and decisive behaviors in them are seen as obligatory traits. Moreover, the personal experiences of females working in different male-dominant professions in both countries related to discriminatory practices, office stress, role, work-family conflicts are somewhat similar. However, the ways, approaches, and intensity of those experiences are different. Therefore, it is recommended that radical changes be required in terms of stereotypical behavior, psychological and social belief systems for genders to mitigate and replace the old thumb rule concepts.</p> Roohi Mumtaz Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 23 2 1297 1315 10.33736/ijbs.4872.2022