Gender Discrimination in the Absence of Discrimination Laws: Evidence from Malaysia

  • Wai Ching Poon Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia
  • Gareth D. Leeves School of Business, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia (Retired)
Keywords: Gender, discrimination, job, field experiments, Malaysia


This study aims to estimate gender discrimination in the labour market by using fictitious job applicants, carrying gender identifiable names at the top of the curriculum vitae. Fictitious job applications were sent to genuine vacancies in Malaysia. An audit experiment was conducted on new graduate employment in a labour market with no legislation against discrimination. We recorded if there was a significant difference in call-back interview rates. We estimated the extra amount of applications females would need to make to obtain the same number of interview calls as males. Results show a female bias in call-backs was evident only in broader markets that traditionally offer female employment.


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How to Cite
Wai Ching Poon, & Gareth D. Leeves. (2022). Gender Discrimination in the Absence of Discrimination Laws: Evidence from Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Society, 23(2), 1025-1041.