Impact of Country of Origin on Brand Love: An Empirical Study of Select Denim Jeans Brands

  • Suzanee Malhotra Department of Commerce, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Evening College, University of Delhi, India
Keywords: Country of origin, brand love, denim jeans, loyalty, word of mouth


This research paper aims to analyze the impact of attitude towards country of origin on brand love for some select US and Indian denim jeans brands. Further the impact of brand love is also studied on loyalty and word of mouth. Survey based research using convenience sampling was used for data collection using self-administered questionnaires. The study has used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS 20 for data analysis. The empirical analysis shows that the attitude toward the country of origin does not impact the feelings of brand love. However, it was found that brand love impacts loyalty and word of mouth considerably. The findings have been derived from the sample of students from one university. Also, the study has not taken into account high-end fashion brands, thus limiting the generality of the findings to all brands. The findings provide a new dimension called brand love which both the foreign and domestic brands must give due credence to when framing of their branding strategies. By aiming to assess the relationship between the constructs of country of origin and brand love, for which sparsely few studies are found in the existing literature, this paper contributes to the growth of literature in the field of brand love.


Agbonifoh, B. A. & Elimimian, J. U. (1999). Attitudes of developing countries towards 'country-of-origin' products in an era of multiple brands. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 11(4), 97-116.

Ahmed, Z. U., Johnson, J. P., Yang, X., Fatt, C. K., Teng, H. S. & Boon, L. C. (2004). Does country of origin matter for low‐involvement products? International Marketing Review, 21(1), 102-120.

Arora, T., Kumar, A. & Agarwal, B. (2020). Impact of social media advertising on millennials buying behavior. International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise, 7(4), 481-500.

Arvind Limited Company. (2020). The fundamentally right manifesto. Arvind Limited Company.

Bairrada, C. M., Coelho, F., & Coelho, A. (2018). Antecedents and outcomes of brand love: Utilitarian and symbolic brand qualities. European Journal of Marketing, 52(3/4), 656-682.

Bandyopadhyay, S., & Banerjee, B. (2003). A country of origin analysis of foreign products by Indian consumers. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 15(2), 85-109.

Batra, R., Ahuvia, A., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2012). Brand love. Journal of Marketing, 76(2), 1-16.

Batra, R., Ramaswamy, V., Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B., & Ramachander, S. (2000). Effects of brand local and nonlocal origin on consumer attitudes in developing countries. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(2), 83-95.

Bergkvist, L., & Bech-Larsen, T. (2010). Two studies of consequences and actionable antecedents of brand love. Journal of Brand Management, 17(7), 504-518.

Bilkey, W. J., & Nes, E. (1982). Country-of-origin effects on product evaluations. Journal of International Business Studies, 13(1), 88-99.

Calder, B. J., Phillips, L. W., & Tybout, A. M. (1981). Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2), 197-207.

Carroll, B. A., & Ahuvia, A. C. (2006). Some antecedents and outcomes of brand love. Marketing Letters, 17(2), 79-89.

Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2002). Product-class effects on brand commitment and brand outcomes: The role of brand trust and brand affect. Journal of Brand Management, 10(1), 33-58.

Clouse, M. (2018). Predicting U.S. adolescents' purchasing of denim jeans using quality attributes, behavioral characteristics, and sociodemographics (Unpublished master thesis). Utah State University.

Cordell, V. V. (1992). Effects of consumer preferences for foreign sourced products. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(2), 251-269.

Crothers, L. (2021). Globalization and American popular culture. Rowman & Littlefield.

Deloitte. (2019). Semiconductors - The next wave: Opportunities and winning strategies for semiconductor companies. Deloitte. Documents/technology-media-telecommunications/tw-semiconductor-report-EN.pdf

Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 22(2), 99-113.

Eroglu, S. A., & Machleit, K. A. (1989). Effects of individual and product-specific variables on utilising country of origin as a product quality cue. International Marketing Review, 6(6), 27-41.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equations models with unobservable variables and confirmatory factor analysis measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. The Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343-373.

Fournier, S., & Mick, D. G. (1999). Rediscovering satisfaction. The Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 5-23.

Hair Jr., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Pearson.

Halim, R. E. (2006). The effect of the relationship of brand trust and brand affect on brand performance: an analysis from brand loyalty perspective (a case of instant coffee product in Indonesia).

Han, C. M. (1990). Testing the role of country image in consumer choice behavior. European Journal of Marketing, 24(6), 24-40.

India Brand Equity Foundation. (2020). Semiconductor industry in India. India Brand Equity Foundation.

Jain, A. K., & Hill, C. W. (2008). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (6th ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill.

Javed, A., & Hasnu, S. A. F. (2013). Impact of country-of-origin on product purchase decision. Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research, 1(1), 31-51.

Kausuhe, J. N., Worang, F. G., & Gunawan, E. M. (2021). The influence of brand image and country of origin on purchase decision of Oppo smartphone in Manado. Jurnal EMBA: Jurnal Riset Ekonomi, Manajemen, Bisnis dan Akuntansi, 9(1), 207-215.

Kaynak, E., & Cavusgil, S. T. (1983). Consumer attitudes towards products of foreign origin: Do they vary across product classes? International Journal of Advertising, 2(2), 147-157.

Kaynak, E., Kucukemiroglu, O., & Hyder, A. S. (2000). Consumers' country-of-origin (COO) perceptions of imported products in a homogenous less-developed country. European Journal of Marketing, 34(9/10), 1221-1241.

Kinra, N. (2006). The effect of country-of-origin on foreign brand names in the Indian market. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 24(1), 15-30.

Kottak, C. P. (1990). Prime Time Society (1st ed.). Wadsworth.

Krosnick, J. A., & Petty, R. E. (1995). Attitude strength: An overview. In J. A. Krosnick, & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences (pp. 1-24). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kumar, A. (2019). Antecedents of brand consciousness in youth for denim jeans: Evidences from the largest young consumer base in the world. International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, 18(3), 330-348.

Kumar, A., Lee, H. J., & Kim, Y. K. (2009). Indian consumers' purchase intention toward a United States versus local brand. Journal of Business Research, 62(5), 521-527.

Lee, H. J., Kumar, A., & Kim, Y. K. (2010). Indian consumers' brand equity toward a US and local apparel brand. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 14(3), 469-485.

Lin, L., & Chen, C. (2006). The influence of the country‐of‐origin image, product knowledge and product involvement on consumer purchase decisions: An empirical study of insurance and catering services in Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(5), 248-265.

Loureiro, S. M. C., Ruediger, K. H., & Demetris, V. (2012). Brand emotional connection and loyalty. Journal of Brand Management, 20(1), 13-27.

Maronick, T. J. (1995). An empirical investigation of perceptions of 'Made in USA' claims. International Marketing Review, 12(3), 15-30.

McKinsey & Company. (2018). The state of fashion 2019. McKinsey & Company.

McKinsey & Company. (2019). The State of Fashion 2020. McKinsey & Company. -final.pdf

O'Connell, L. (2019, August 9). Size of the global denim jeans market 2018-2025. Statista.

Papadopoulos, N., & Heslop, L. A. (1993). Product-country images: Impact and role in international marketing (1st ed.). Haworth.

Peterson, R. A. (2001). On the use of college students in social science research: Insights from a second-order meta analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(3), 450-461.

Piron, F. (2000). Consumers' perceptions of the country-of-origin effect on purchasing intentions of (in)conspicuous products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(4), 308-321.

Rahman, O. (2011). Understanding consumers' perceptions and buying behaviours: Implications for Denim Jeans Design. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management, 7(1), 1-16.

Rodrigues, C., & Brandão, A. (2021). Measuring the effects of retail brand experiences and brand love on word of mouth: A cross-country study of IKEA brand. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 31(1), 78-105.

Roy, S.K., Eshghi, A., & Sarkar, A. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of brand love. Journal of Brand Management, 20(4), 325-332.

Sarkar, A. (2013). Romantic brand love: A conceptual analysis. The Marketing Review, 13(1), 23-37.

Sarkar, A. (2019). Validating a theoretical model for hotel brand love amongst young Indian tourists. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 5(4), 228-243.

Schweiger, G., Haubl, G., & Friederes, G. (1995). Consumers' evaluations of products labeled 'Made in Europe'. Marketing and Research Today, 23(1), 25-34.

Seringhaus, F. R. (2005). Comparison of website usage of French and Italian luxury brands. Journal of Euromarketing, 14(4), 5-34.

Shimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: Construction and validation of CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 280-289.

Singh, N.C. (2019). Population dynamism in national capital territory of Delhi: From explosive growth towards stabilization. Research Review International Journal of Multidisciplinary, 4(6), 1036-1043.

Singhi, A., Mathur, R., & Dutta, A. (2020). Retail 4.0: Winning the 20s. Boston Consulting Group.

Statista. (2019). Number of denim jeans consumed in India 2013-2020 [Time series].

Strutton, D., True, S. L., & Rody, R. J. (1995). Russian consumer perceptions of foreign and domestic consumer goods: An analysis of country-of-origin stereotypes with implications for promotions and positioning. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 3(3), 76-87.

Su, J., & Tong, X. (2016). Brand personality, consumer satisfaction and loyalty: A perspective from denim jeans brands. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 44(4), 427- 446.

Sung, Y., & Kim, J. (2010). Effects of brand personality on brand trust and brand affect. Psychology and Marketing, 27(7), 639-661.

Suthar, B. K., Chakravarthi, T. L., & Pradhan, S., (2014). Examining perceptions and buying behavior on denim jeans in context to students of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. In N. J. Rajaram, G. H. S. Prasad, & S. K. M. Belli (Eds.), Contemporary issues and trends in fashion, retail and management (pp. 24-34). National Institute of Fashion Technology.

Talyan, V., Dahiya, R. P., & Sreekrishnan, T. R. (2008). State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India. Waste Management, 28(7), 1276-1287.

Tiwari, A. A., Chakraborty, A., & Maity, M. (2021). Technology product coolness and its implication for brand love. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58(C), 102258.

Verma, P. (2021). The effect of materialism, satisfaction and trust upon attitudinal loyalty: The case of denims. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 31(1), 1-20.

Wang, X., & Yang, Z. (2008). Does country‐of‐origin matter in the relationship between brand personality and purchase intention in emerging economies? Evidence from China's auto industry. International Marketing Review, 25(4), 458-474.

Zain, O. M., & Yasin, N. M. (1997). The importance of country-of-origin information and perceived product quality in Uzbekistan. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Retail and Distribution, 25(4), 138-145.

How to Cite
Suzanee Malhotra. (2022). Impact of Country of Origin on Brand Love: An Empirical Study of Select Denim Jeans Brands. International Journal of Business and Society, 23(2), 820-833.