Rural Residents’ Perceptions on the Poverty Alleviation and Governance in Sarawak, Malaysia
Poverty alleviation has continuously become one of the main concerns of the socio-economic policy worldwide. This crucial phenomenon is bounded on necessity toward monetary and comprehends by social, economic, political, and physiological aspects. In Malaysia, although the New Economic Policy in 1971 has succeeded in reducing the country's poverty incident, poverty's pocket continues to exist with high incidences of poverty among specific ethnic groups and localities. For instance, rural poverty among the Iban community in Sarawak has occurred since Malaysian independence. Therefore, this paper examines the rural residents' perceptions of the State's role in poverty alleviation in Sarawak using a qualitative approach. Findings revealed that although the government has various programs to alleviate poverty, the social assistance related to poverty was not efficiently distributed in Sarawak's rural areas. This study also revealed that a lack of social infrastructures, such as road accessibility, has significantly influenced social assistance's efficiency distribution in rural areas.
Alkire, S., & Housseini, B. (2014). Multidimensional poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Levels and trends (Oxford Poverty Human Development Initiative Working Papers No. 81). University of Oxford. https://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/OPHIWP081.pdf
Anand, S. (1977). Aspects of poverty in Malaysia. The Review of Income and Wealth, 23(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4991.1977.tb00001.x
Attanasio, O., & Szekely, M. (2001). Going beyond income: Redefining poverty in Latin America. In O. Attanasio, & M. Szekely (Eds.), Portrait of the poor: An asset based approach (pp. 1-44). Inter-American Development Bank.
Aziz, U. (1964). Poverty and rural development in Malaysia. Kajian Ekonomi Malaysia, 1(1), 70-105.
Bajar, S., & Rajeev, M. (2015). The impact of infrastructure provisioning on inequality: Evidence from India (Global Labour University Working Paper No. 35). https://global-labour-unive rsity.org/wp-content/uploads/fileadmin/GLU_Working_Papers/GLU_WP_No.35.p df
Castañeda, A., Doan, D., Newhouse, D., Nguyen, M. C., Uematsu, H., & Azevedo, J. P. (2018). A new profile of the global poor. World Development, 101(C), 250-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.002
Creswell, J. W. (2007) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. SAGE Publications.
De Milliano, M., & Plavgo, I. (2018). Analysing multidimensional child poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings using an international comparative approach. Child Indicators Research, 11(3), 805-833. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9488-1
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2010). Key findings gross domestic product (GDP) by state. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=102&bul_id=eUJMdnd0QkhSTkhMVXVaTHN4bFZYUT09&menu_id=TE5CRUZCblh4ZTZMODZIbmk2aWRRQT09.
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2020a). Laporan sosioekonomi negeri Sarawak 2020. Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. https://cloud.stats.gov.my/index.php/s/bjpiJFacS2AUAIY#pdfvie wer
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2020b). Household income & basic amenities survey report 2019 [Press release]. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/pdfPrev&id=T U00TmRhQ1N5TUxHVWN0T2VjbXJYZz09
Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2020c). Poket stats negeri Sarawak ST4 2020. Jabatan Perangkaan malaysia. https://cloud.stats.gov.my/index.php/s/ebya31i6BnPvDX3#pdfvie wer
Dixon, C. (1990) Rural development in the third world. Routledge.
Dullah, M., Mori, K., Rozilee, A., & Jaratin, L. (2012). Is economic growth sufficient for poverty alleviation? Empirical evidence from Malaysia. Cuadernos De Economia, 35(97), 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0210-0266(12)70020-1
Fathin, A. F. (2019). Poverty and living standards among oil palm community in rural Sarawak (Unpublished master's thesis). Universiti Malaya.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2017). End rural poverty: A path towards hunger-free, peaceful and inclusive societies. https://www.fao.org/sustainable-d evelopment-goals/news/detail-news/en/c/1044650/
Fosu, A. K. (2015). Growth, inequality and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recent progress in a global context. Oxford Development Studies, 43(1), 44-59. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2014.964195
Halimah, A., & Maniam, K. (2010). Critical roles of RIDA, MARA and UiTM. In H. Osman-Rani (Ed.), Tun Abdul Razak's Role in Malaysia's development (pp. 65-192). MPH Group Publishing.
Heyer, J. (1998). The complexities of rural poverty in Sub‐Saharan Africa. Oxford Development Studies, 24(3), 281-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600819608424117
Hurst, P., Termine, P., & Karl, M. (2007). Agricultural workers and their contribution to sustainable agriculture and rural development. International Labour Organization, Food and Ariculture Organization, International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations.
Idris, N. M., & Siwar, C. (2015). From poverty reduction to poverty relief: Impact of non-farm income in Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA) Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia. Geografia: Malaysian Journal of Society And Space, 11(1), 32-41.
Iramani, R., & Lutfi, L. (2021), An integrated model of financial well-being: The role of financial behavior. Accounting, 7(3), 691-700. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.ac.2020.12.007
Ishak, O., & Osman-Rani, H. (1996). Poverty eradication in Sarawak: Problems and remedies. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 30, 3-30.
Ismail, M, K., Siwar, C., & Muhammad, M. Z. (2020). Agropolitan project: Role in rural development and poverty eradication. In I. F. Amao & I. B. Adeoye (Eds.), Agricultural Economics. IntechOpen Limited.
Janvry, D, A., & Sadoulet, E. (2000). Rural poverty in Latin America determinants and exit paths. Food Policy, 25(4), 389-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-9192(00)00023-3
Kiky, K. A. & Junaenah. S. (2015). Kemunduran sosioekonomi dan penyisihan sosial komuniti bumiputera di Bandaraya Kuching: Kajian kes di Kampung Kudei Baru dan Kampung Sinar Budi Baru Batu Kawa. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 11(13), 131-141.
Kwok, C. H., Haris, A. W., Siti Hajar, A. B., & Rezaul, M. I. (2018). Community participation for rural poverty alleviation: A case of the Iban community in Malaysia. International Social Work, 61(4), 518-536. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872816673890
Loapez, R., & Valdes, A. (2000). Fighting rural poverty in Latin America: New evidence of the effects of education, demographics, and access to land. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49(1), 197-211. https://doi.org/10.1086/452497
Madeline, B. (2001, 10-14 July). Iban poverty: A reflection on its causes, consequences and policy implications' paper [Paper presentation]. Borneo 2000 Conference, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Madeline, B., Faridah, S., & Salfarina, A. (2006). Alleviating bumiputera poverty in Sarawak: Reflections and proposal. Proceedings of the Malaysian Research Conference 4th International Conference (pp. 19-21). https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11928551.pdf
Mahmood, H. K. (2000). Rural poverty in developing countries: Issues and policies. International Monetary Fund Working Paper No. WP/00/78). https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/ 2000/wp0078.pdf https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451850093.001
Masron, T., Masami, F., & Nurhashimah, I. (2013). Orang asli in Peninsular Malaysia: Population, spatial distribution and socio-economic condition. Journal Ritsumeikan Social Science and Humanities, 6(4), 75-115.
Ministry of Rural Development. (2019). Data asas KPLB 2019 [Data set]. https://www.rurallink.g ov.my/data-asas-kplb/
Mohd Zin, M., & John, A. X. (2015). Poverty alleviation strategies and new economic model in Malaysia. International Academic Research Journal of Economics and Finance, 3(3), 17-31.
Nair, S., & S. Sagaran (2015). Poverty in Malaysia: Need for a paradigm shift. International Journal of Institutions and Economies, 7(3) 95-123.
Ngidang, D. (1995). The politics of development in longhouse communities in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Development in Practice, 5(4), 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1080/0961452951000157324
Ragayah, M. Z. (2002). The impact of the financial crisis on poverty and inequality in Malaysia. In S. Khander (Ed.), Impact of the East Asian financial crisis revisited (pp. 15-61). Phillipine Institute for Development Studies.
Ragayah, M. Z. (2007). Understanding the formulation of the revised poverty line in Malaysia. Akademika, 70(1), 21-39.
Ravallion, M. (2020). Ethnic inequality and poverty in Malaysia since May 1969. Part 2: Poverty. World Development, 134, 105039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105039
Regina, G, A. (2017). Accessibility and development. A case study from rural Sarawak, Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Society, 18(S4), 791-799.
Regina, G. A. (2016). Accessibility and development in rural Sarawak: A case study of the Baleh River Basin, Kapit District, Sarawak, Malaysia" (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Victoria University of Wellington.
Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Hardy, A. (2015). Addressing poverty and inequality in the rural economy from a global perspective. Applied Geography, 61, 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.02.005
Sachs, J., McArthur, J. W., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kruk, M., Bahadur, C., Faye, M., & McCord, G. (2004). Ending Africa's poverty trap. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2004(1), 117-240. https://doi.org/10.1353/eca.2004.0018
Sanggin, S. E., & Mersat, N. I. (2013). Landowner's response and adaptation to large scale land development projects in Sarawak, Malaysia. The Macrotheme Review, 2(6), 146-162.
Sharifah, R. S. D., & Khoo, S, L. (2016). Poverty eradication, government role and sustainable livelihood in rural Malaysia: An empirical study of community perception in northern Peninsular Malaysia. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(8), 61-70.
Sharmin, S., & Rayhan, I. (2011). Does globalization always increase inequality? An econometric analysis in Bangladesh perspective. Journal of Globalization Studies, 2(2), 160-172.
Shireen, M. H. (1998). Income inequality and poverty in Malaysia. Rowman & Littlefield Publisher Inc.
Soda, R. (2000). Living strategies of the urban poor in a local town in Sarawak, Malaysia: Population mobility of the Iban between urban and rural areas. Geographical Review of Japan Series B, 73(2), 139-164. https://doi.org/10.4157/grj1984b.73.139
Solarin, S. A. (2021). Microfinance services and poverty reduction in Sarawak, Malaysia. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 11(2), 52-55. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijefi.11258
Sulochana, N., & Murali, M. (2010). The realization of rural development plans. In H. Osman, Rani (Eds), Tun Abdul Razak's role in Malaysia's development (pp 33-66). MPH Group Publishing.
Sulochana, N., & Sagaran, S. (2015). Poverty in Malaysia: Need for a paradigm shift. Institutions and Economies, 7(3), 95-123.
Suttie, D. (2019). Overview: Rural poverty in developing countries: Issues, policies and challenges. United Nations. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/wp-content/uplo ads/sites/22/2019/03/Rural-poverty-EGM_IFAD-overview.pdf
Thang, H. N. C., & Amir, H. B. (2011). Poverty reduction: A continuous social responsibility in Malaysia. International Journal of Rural Studies, 18(2), 1-4.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2019). Monthly briefing on the world economic situation and prospects [UN DESA Briefing No. 131]. United Nations Secretariat. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/world-economic-sit uation-and-prospects-october-2019-briefing-no-131/
United Nations Development Programme. (2013). Malaysia human development report 2013: Redesigning an inclusive future. https://hdr.undp.org/system/files/documents//malaysia-n hdr.malaysia-nhdr
United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform. https://sustainabled evelopment.un.org/topics/sustainabledevelopmentgoals
United Nations. (2019). World economic situation and prospects: October 2019 Briefing (Report No. 131). Department of Economic and Social Affairs Economic Analysis United Nations. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/world-economic-situati on-and-prospects-october-2019-briefing-no-131/
Welyne, J. J. (2002). Ethnic pluralism and ethnic relations in Sarawak. Akademika, 61(1), 53-70.
World Bank. (2016a). Ending extreme poverty. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/ 06/08/ending-extreme-poverty
World Bank. (2016b). While poverty in Africa has declined, number of poor has increased. Poverty in a rising Africa: Africa poverty report. https://www.worldbank.org/en/region/af r/publication/poverty-rising-africa-poverty-report
World Bank. (2020). The World Bank COVID-19 response in LAC: Overview. https://www.worldbank.org/en/region/lac/overview
Zulher, Z., & Ratnasih, C. (2021), Financial development and poverty reduction in developing countries. Accounting, 7(3), 667-674. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.ac.2020.12.010
Copyright (c) 2022 UNIMAS Publisher
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Transfer Statement for Journal
1) In signing this statement, the author(s) grant UNIMAS Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers. The author(s) also grant UNIMAS Publisher permission to reproduce, recreate, translate, extract or summarize, and to distribute and display in any forms, formats, and media. The author(s) can reuse their papers in their future printed work without first requiring permission from UNIMAS Publisher, provided that the author(s) acknowledge and reference publication in the Journal.
2) For open access articles, the author(s) agree that their articles published under UNIMAS Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-SA (Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work of the author(s) is properly cited.
3) For subscription articles, the author(s) agree that UNIMAS Publisher holds copyright, or an exclusive license to publish. Readers or users may view, download, print, and copy the content, for academic purposes, subject to the following conditions of use: (a) any reuse of materials is subject to permission from UNIMAS Publisher; (b) archived materials may only be used for academic research; (c) archived materials may not be used for commercial purposes, which include but not limited to monetary compensation by means of sale, resale, license, transfer of copyright, loan, etc.; and (d) archived materials may not be re-published in any part, either in print or online.
4) The author(s) is/are responsible to ensure his or her or their submitted work is original and does not infringe any existing copyright, trademark, patent, statutory right, or propriety right of others. Corresponding author(s) has (have) obtained permission from all co-authors prior to submission to the journal. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language. If submitted manuscript includes materials from others, the authors have obtained the permission from the copyright owners.
5) In signing this statement, the author(s) declare(s) that the researches in which they have conducted are in compliance with the current laws of the respective country and UNIMAS Journal Publication Ethics Policy. Any experimentation or research involving human or the use of animal samples must obtain approval from Human or Animal Ethics Committee in their respective institutions. The author(s) agree and understand that UNIMAS Publisher is not responsible for any compensational claims or failure caused by the author(s) in fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements. The author(s) must accept the responsibility for releasing their materials upon request by Chief Editor or UNIMAS Publisher.
6) The author(s) should have participated sufficiently in the work and ensured the appropriateness of the content of the article. The author(s) should also agree that he or she has no commercial attachments (e.g. patent or license arrangement, equity interest, consultancies, etc.) that might pose any conflict of interest with the submitted manuscript. The author(s) also agree to make any relevant materials and data available upon request by the editor or UNIMAS Publisher.