Cybercrime Threat Landscape amid the Movement Control Order in Malaysia

  • N.K. Tharshini Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Zamri Hassan Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Faizah Haji Mas’ud Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Keywords: Cybercrime, COVID-19, Malaysia, Movement Control Order, Pandemic

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved rapidly and affected almost all the world's countries, creating unprecedented chaos on human lives, physical health, mental wellbeing, and the world economy. During this time, digital space has become an indispensable global means of communication, entertainment, and social interaction. However, high reliance on digital tools increases the risk of being prey to cyberattacks. In order to explore the cybercrime threat landscape, empirical research was conducted to examine the shared experiences related to cybercrime threats during the enforcement of the Movement Control Order in Malaysia. Data was collected using an online survey among 332 respondents across Malaysia. The finding stipulated that most of the respondents comprised females aged between 18 and 28 years old. The result also indicated that majority of female became victims of online phishing/malware distribution [(M = 0.58, SD = 0.13); t (113) = 2.24, p = 0.02] and online sexual harassment [(M = 0.56, SD = 0.11); t (107) = 2.38, p = 0.01]. The understanding of cybercrime experiences faced by the public during MCO is essential to help law enforcement agencies to stay vigilant on issues related to public safety and security during unprecedented conditions.

References

Abbas, H., Mahmoodzahed, M. Q., Aslam Khan, F., & Pasha, M. (2014). Identifying an OpenID Anti-Phishing Scheme for Cyberspace. Security and Communication Networks, 9, 481-491. https://doi.org/10.1002/sec.1027

Abbasi, A., Zhang, Z., Zimbra, D., & Chen, H. (2010). Detecting Fake Websites: The Contribution of Statistical Learning Theory. MIS Quarterly, 34(3), 435-461. https://doi.org/10.2307/25750686

Allodi, L. (2017). Economic Factors of Vulnerability Trade and Exploitation: Empirical Evidence from a Prominent Russian Cybercrime Market. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3133960

Anastasi, A., & Urbina. S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Arfi, N., & Agarwal, S. (2013). Knowledge of Cybercrime among Elderly. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 4(7), 1463.

Bateman, P. J., Pike, J. C., & Butler, B. S. (2011). To Disclose or Not: Publicness in Social Networking Sites. Information Technology & People, 24, 78-100. https://doi.org/10.1108/09593841111109431

Baumgartner, S. E., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2010). Unwanted Online Sexual Solicitation and Risky Sexual of a Phishing Attack. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20, 570-584.

Boss, S. R., Galletta, D. F., Lowry, P. B., Moody, G. D., & Polak, P. (2015). What Do Systems Users Have to Fear? Using Fear Appeals to Engender Threats and Fear That Motivate Protective Security Behaviours. MIS Quarterly, 39(4), 837-864. https://doi.org/10.25300/MISQ/2015/39.4.5

Business Today. (2020). KPMG: Hackers Exploiting Global Uncertainty during COVID-19 Pandemic. https://www.businesstoday.com.my/2020/04/22/kpmg-hackers-exploiting-global-uncertainty-during-covid-19-pandemic/

Button, M., Nicholls, C. M., Kerr, J., & Owen, R. (2014). Online Frauds: Learning from Victims Why They Fall for These Scams. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 47(3), 391-408. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004865814521224

Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 588-608. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094589

Coyne, M. (2020). Crime Rates Across U.S. Drop Amid the Coronavirus Pandemic. https://www.forbes.com/sites/marleycoyne/2020/04/11/crime-rates-across-us-drop-amid-the.

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation. (EUROPOL) (2019). IOCTA. Internet Organized Crime Threat Assessment. The Hague, The Netherlands: European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation. https://www.europol.europa.eu/iocta-report https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(19)30114-9

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation. (EUROPOL) (2020). Pandemic Profiteering: How Criminals Exploit the COVID-19 Cri¬sis. The Hague, The Netherlands: European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation. https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/pandemic-profiteering-how-criminals-exploit-covid-19-crisis

Federal Commercial Crime Investigation Department. (2020). Jabatan Siasatan Jenayah Komersil. https://www.rmp.gov.my/infor-korporate/jabatan---jabatan/jabatan-siasatan-jenayah-komersil

Ferreira, A., Coventry, L., & Lenzini, G. (2015). Principles of Persuasion in Social Engineering and Their Use in Phishing. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20376-8_4

Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive Emotions Broaden the Scope of Attention and Thought-Action Repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930441000238

Futter, A. (2016). Is Trident Safe from Cyber Attack? https://www.europeanleadershipnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Is-Trident-safe-from-cyber-attack-1.pdf

Gradon, K. (2020). Crime in the Time of the Plague: Fake News Pandemic and the Challenges to Law-Enforcement and Intelligence Community. Society Register, 4(2), 133-148. https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2020.4.2.10

Henson, B., Reyns, B. W., & Fisher, B. S. (2013). Does Gender Matter in the Virtual World? Examining the Effect of Gender on the Link between Online Social Network Activity, Security, and Interpersonal Victimization. Security Journal, 26(4), 315-330. https://doi.org/10.1057/sj.2013.21

Holt, T. J., & Bossler, A. M. (2008). Examining the Applicability of Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theory for Cybercrime Victimization. Deviant Behaviour, 30(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639620701876577

Holtfreter, K., & Meyers, T. J. (2015). Challenges for Cybercrime Theory, Research, and Policy. Behavioural Emerging Situations, 105-155. In G. C. Lajeunesse (Ed.), The Norwich Review of International and Transnational Crime (pp. 54-65). Norwich University: NUARI.

Interpol. (2020). COVID-19 Crime: INTERPOL Issues New Guidelines for Law Enforcement. https://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-Events/News/2020/COVID-19-crime-INTERPOL-issues-new-guidelines-for-law-enforcement

Jain, S. & Agrawal, S. (2020). Perceived Vulnerability of Cyberbullying on Social Networking Sites: Effects of Security Measures, Addiction and Self-Disclosure. Indian Growth and Development Review, 14(2), 149-171. https://doi.org/10.1108/IGDR-10-2019-0110

Jayabalan, P., Ibrahim, R., & Abdul Manaf, A. (2014). Understanding Cybercrime in Malaysia: An Overview. Sains Humanika, 2(2), 109-115.

Jensen, M. L., Dinger, M., Wright, R. T., & Thatcher, J. B. (2017). Training to Mitigate Phishing Attacks Using Mindfulness Techniques. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(2), 597-626. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2017.1334499

Jiloha, R. (2020). Internet Abuse: A Newer Form of Sexual Harassment. Journal of Advanced Research in Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3(1), 13-18. https://doi.org/10.24321/2581.5822.202003

Kaur, M. (2020). Online Gambling "Rampant" Since MCO Began. Free Malaysia Today. https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2020/04/06/online-gambling-rampant-since-mco-began/

Lopes, P. N, Salovey, P., & Straus, R. (2003). Emotional Intelligence, Personality, and the Perceived Quality of Social Relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(3), 641-658. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00242-8

Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and Quantification of Content Validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382-386. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198611000-00017

Tee, K. (2020, April 6). IGP Vows Crackdown on Rampant Cigarette Smuggling, Online Gambling During MCO. Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/04/06/igp-vows-crackdown-on-rampant-cigarette-smuggling-online-gambling-during-mc/1854103

Malaysian National Cyber Security Agency. (2020). MyCERT - The Malaysian Computer Emergency Response Team. https://www.cybersecurity.my/en/our_services/mycert/main/detail/2328/index.html

Maras, M. H. (2016). Cyber Criminology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Marchum, C. D., Ricketts, M. L., & Higgins, G. E. (2010). Assessing Sex Experiences of Online Victimization: An Examination of Adolescent Online Behaviours Using Routine Activity Theory. Criminal Justice Review, 35, 412-437. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734016809360331

Masuwai, A., Mohd Tajudin, N., & Shah. N. S. (2016). Evaluating the Face and Content Validity of a Teaching Guiding Principles Instrument (TLGPI): A Perspective Study of Malaysian Teacher Educators. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(3), 11-21.

Naidoo, R. (2020). A Multi-Level Influence Model of COVID-19 Themed Cybercrime. European Journal of Information Systems, 29(3), 306-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2020.1771222

Nguyen, T. V. (2020). Cybercrime in Vietnam: An Analysis on Routine Activity Theory. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 14(1), 156-173.

Norris, G., Brookes, A. & Dowell, D. (2019). The Psychology of Internet Fraud Victimisation: A Systematic Review. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 19(34), 231-245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-019-09334-5

Norton Cybercrime Report. (2010). Norton's Cybercrime Report: The Human Impact Reveals Global Cybercrime Epidemic and Our Hidden Hypocrisy. https://community.norton.com/en/blogs/symantec-cyber-education/norton%E2%80%99s-cybercrime-report-human-impact-reveals-global-cybercrime

Oluwatayo. J. A. (2012). Validity and Reliability Issues in Educational Research. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 391-400.

Police Act. (1967). Laws of Malaysia: Online Version of Updated Text of Print (Act 344). chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ilo.org%2Fdyn%2Fnatlex%2Fdocs%2FELECTRONIC%2F103083%2F124971%2FF1234758774%2FMYS103083.pdf&clen=483809

Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease Act. (1988). The Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases (Measure Within the Infected Local Areas) Regulation 2020 - Containing the COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia. https://www.christopherleeong.com/media/3887/clo_2020_03_the-prevention-and-control-of-infectious-diseases.pdf

Reich, P. C., & Gelbstein, E. (2012). Law, Policy and Technology: Cyberterrorism, Information Warfare and Internet Immobilisation. USA: Hershey. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-831-9

Reja, U., Manfreda, K. L., Hlebec, V., & Vehovar, V. (2003). Open-Ended VS Closed-Ended Questions in Web Questionnaires. Development Application Statistic, 19, 159-177.

Roberts, J. A., & Manolis, C. (2012). Cooking up a Recipe for Self-Control: The Three Ingredients of Self-Control and its Impact on Impulse Buying. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20(2), 173-188. https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679200204

Ronchi, E., & Kinsey, M. (2011). Evacuation Models of the Future: Insights from an Online Survey on User's Experiences and Needs. In J. Capote & D. Alvear (Eds.), Proceedings of the Advanced Research Workshop: "Evacuation and Human Behaviour in Emergency Situations" (pp. 145-155). Universidad de Cantabria.

Sangoseni, O., Hellman, M., & Hill, C. (2013). Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess the Effect of Online Learning on Behaviours, Attitudes, and Clinical Practices of Physical Therapists in the United States Regarding Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 11(2), 113. https://doi.org/10.46743/1540-580X/2013.1439

Segal, S. (2020). Breaking Down the G20 COVID-19 Fiscal Response. Centre for Strategies and International Studies (CSIS). https://www.csis.org/analysis/breaking-down-g20-covid-19-fiscal-response

Stickle, B. & Felson, M. (2020). Crime Rates in a Pandemic: The Largest Criminological Experiment in History. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 525-536. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-020-09546-0

Sun, J. C. (2016). The Mediating Effect of Anti-Phishing Self-Efficacy between College: Internet Self-Efficacy and Anti-Phishing Behavior and Gender. Computers in Human Behaviour, 59, 12-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.004

Symantec. (2018). We Stop Threats Hiding in Plain Sight. https://securitycloud.symantec.com/cc/#/landing

Van Wilsem, J. (2013). Bought It but Never Got It: Assessing Risk Factors for Online Consumer Fraud Victimization. European Sociological Review, 29(2), 168-178. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcr053

Vishwanath, A. (2015). Examining the Distinct Antecedents of E-Mail Habits and its Influence on the Outcome. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(5), 570-584. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12126

World Economic Forum. (2019). The Cybersecurity Guide for Leaders in Today's Digital World. https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Cybersecurity_Guide_for_Leaders.pdf

Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2007). Internet Prevention Messages: Targeting the Right Online Behaviors. Arch Paediatric Adolescent Medicine, 161, 138-45. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.2.138D

Published
2021-12-17
How to Cite
N.K. Tharshini, Zamri Hassan, & Faizah Haji Mas’ud. (2021). Cybercrime Threat Landscape amid the Movement Control Order in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Society, 22(3), 1589-1601. https://doi.org/10.33736/ijbs.4323.2021