The Dynamic Impact of Government Expenditure in Education on Economic Growth

  • Norimah Rambeli Faculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Dayang Affizzah Awang Marikan Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Jan M. Podivinsky School of Economic, Social and Political Science, University of Southampton
  • Rosilawati Amiruddin Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Ismadi Ismail Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Keywords: Education-Led Growth Hypothesis, Economic Growth, Education Expenditure, Vector Error Correction Model


The focal aim of this study is to examine the validation of education-led economic growth hypothesis in Malaysia under the recovery period following the 2008 world economic crisis. Specifically, this study implemented the augmented Cobb-Douglas model in order to observe the dynamic relationship between selected variables including, industrial production index, gross fixed capital formation, employment, government spending on education and broad money supply. This study adopted the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) in analysing the dynamic impact between variables and generally supports the education-led growth hypothesis in the short and long run. Specifically the study corroborates the bidirectional causality between education spending and economic growth, and vice versa, in the short run. The result also reveals that long-run equilibrium relationship exists between government expenditure in education and economic growth in Malaysia during post-crisis recovery regime. The education-led growth hypothesis can thus be inferred for the economy following crisis. The government should thus be advised that increasing education sector spending should increase post-crisis economic growth in both the short and long run. This is further strengthened by Granger causality test result which suggests unidirectional causality that runs from financial variable to economic growth. It is accordingly suggested that financial variable is a determinant of government spending on education in the aftermath of the economic crisis. Additionally, the study also supports the role of capital and employment on economic growth in the long term. By implication, the study suggests that financial planning as related to national education policies must be carefully and meticulously crafted, to ensure future success. This is linked to the investment in human capital which includes education expenditure at different levels that is essentially important to national long-term planning. The specific financial planning for human capital development is therefore very important to ensure the expenditure incurred contributes to sustainable economic development in Malaysia in the long term.


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How to Cite
Norimah Rambeli, Dayang Affizzah Awang Marikan, Jan M. Podivinsky, Rosilawati Amiruddin, & Ismadi Ismail. (2021). The Dynamic Impact of Government Expenditure in Education on Economic Growth. International Journal of Business and Society, 22(3), 1487-1507.