Role of Flow between Job Demand and Job Resources among the Hotel Employees in Sarawak

  • Mark Kasa USCI University Malaysia
  • Zaiton Hassan University Malaysia Sarawak
  • Jackelyn Ng UCSI University Malaysia
  • Abdul Halim Busari Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • Nik Norsyamimi Md. Nor Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Keywords: Job demands, Job resources, Flow, In-role performance, JD-R, Hotel


The Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) Model has been used to investigate many work outcomes. However, few focused its effectsto in-role performance work outcomes and none on flow as mediator in an eastern context. Thus, the objectivesof this study areto examine the relationship between flow and in-role performance as well as whether flow mediates the relationship between antecedents (job demand and job resources) and in-role performance among East Malaysian hotel employees. 290 full time frontline and backline employees from four-and five-star rated hotel in Sarawak responded the self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 22 and PROCESS approach. Results confirmed that flow experience positively correlateswith in-role performance while also imposesa robust mediating effect between job resources and in-role performance. However, results have shown that flow has no mediation impact on the relationship between job demand and in-role performance. Precisely, hotel employees with provision of sufficient job resources (such as autonomy, social support, performance feedback, possibilities for professional development) are further likely to encounter flow experience, and as a result, are likely to exhibit better in-role performance. Thus, hotel management should redesign jobs and commensurate tasks to encourage flow experiences, which in return lead to better in-role performance that directly contributes to overall performance of the hotel. In addition, management should provide for job resources to encourage task autonomy and better social support systems.


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How to Cite
Mark Kasa, Zaiton Hassan, Jackelyn Ng, Abdul Halim Busari, & Nik Norsyamimi Md. Nor. (2020). Role of Flow between Job Demand and Job Resources among the Hotel Employees in Sarawak. International Journal of Business and Society, 21(1), 168-182.