Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Dr. Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)

Managing Editor
Madam Norazlina Bateni (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)

Associate Editors
Dr. Mohamad Raduan Kabit (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Ir. Dr. Norazzlina M. Sa'don (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Dr. Alsidqi Hasan (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Dr. Darrien Mah Yau Seng (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Ir. Dr. Leonard Lim Lik Pueh(Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Ir. Dr. Ting Sim Nee (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Dr. Idawati Ismail (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Ir. Dr. Abdul Razak Abdul Karim (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Dr. Raudhah Ahmadi (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)

Editorial Advisory Board
Dr. Sandro Marden Torres (The Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), Brazil)
Dr. Paulo H. R. Borges (Federal Centre for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Brazil)
Prof. Dr. Taksiah A.Majid (University Science Malaysia, Malaysia)
Prof. Dr. Megat Azmi Megat Johari (University Science Malaysia, Malaysia)
Assc. Prof. Dr. Zainah Binti Ibrahim (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)
Prof. Dato’ Ir. Dr. Mohd Saleh Jaafar (UPM, Malaysia)
Prof. Dr. Agnieszka Klemm (GCU, UK)
Assc. Prof. Dr. Prabir Kolay (Southern Illinois University, USA)
Assc. Prof. Dr. Fadzli Mohamed (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
Assc. Prof. Dr. Ishtiaque Ahmed ( UTM, Malaysia)
Assc. Prof. Ahmad Baharuddin Bin Abd. Rahman ( UTM, Malaysia)
Prof. Dr. Abdulkader I. Al-Hadithi (University of Anbar, Iraq)
Professor Sherif Mohamed (Griffith University, Australia)
Prof. Dr. Bishwajit Bhattacharjee (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India)
Associate Professor Dr Pedro Raposeiro da Silva (ISEL – Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Portugal)
Prof. Dr. Sanjeev Kumar (Southern Illinois University, USA)
Prof. Dr. Ng Chee Khoon (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mannan (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Assc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Siti Noor Linda Taib (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Assc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Ibrahim Safawi (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)

Copy Editor and Proofreader

Associate Professor Dr Helmy Hazmi (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)

Dr Annisa Jamali (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)

Webmaster and Layout Editors
Mdm. Rosesima Ikau (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak)