Knowledge, Awareness, and Perceptions towards Prostate Cancer amongst Male UNIMAS Undergraduates

  • Jin Wang Goh
  • Ching Thon Chang Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
Keywords: awareness, knowledge, male undergraduates, perceptions, prostate cancer


Prostate cancer has always been thought as a cancer of elderly men. However, men of any age can develop prostate cancer. Early onset prostate cancer has become an emerging public health concern as there is an increased incidence of prostate cancer amongst men aged ≤55 years over the last two decades. This quantitative cross sectional study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perceptions toward prostate cancer among 322 male local undergraduates in UNIMAS. The results showed that only a small percentage of the respondents (12.1%) had a high knowledge and awareness level and less than half (44.7%) showed good perception towards cancer of prostate. Chi-square results indicated that the year of study and study programmes had significant association with knowledge and awareness towards prostate cancer. This study provides preliminary data which are useful for the planning of community-based program to educate the younger adults regarding prostate cancer as well as a basis for further research.


Adibe, M. O., Aluh, D. O., Isah, A., & Anosike, C. (2017). Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Prostate Cancer among Male Staff of the University of Nigeria. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 18(7), 1961–1966.

American Cancer Society. (2019). Prostate Cancer.

Azizah, Ab. M., Nor Saleha, I. T., Noor Hashimah, A., Asmah, Z.A., & Mastulu, W. (2015). Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report 2007-2011.

Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R.L., Torre, L. A., & Jemal, A. (2018). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68(6), 394–424.

Campbell, L. C., & McClain, J. (2013). Exploring Prostate Cancer Literacy and Family Cancer Awareness in College Students: Getting Ahead of the Curve in Cancer Education. Journal of Cancer Education, 28(4), 617–622.

Cancer Research UK. (2018). Why is early diagnosis important?

Chin, H. W., Kim, J., Rasp, G., & Hristov, B. (2015). Prostate Cancer in Seniors: Part 1: Epidemiology, Pathology, and Screening. Federal practitioner : for the health care professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS, 32(Suppl 4), 41S–44S.

Dean, A.G., Sullivan, K.M., & Soe, M.M. (2013). OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health, Version.

Gliem, J. A. and Gliem, R. R.. (2003). Calculating, Intepreting, and Reporting Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales. Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, 82-88.

Hong, G. E., Kong, C. H., Singam, P., Cheok, L. B., Zainuddin, Z. M., & Azrif, M. (2010). Seven-year review of prostate carcinomas diagnosed by TRUS biopsy in a single Malaysian institution. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 11(5), 1351-1353.

Ismail, S., Zainuddin, H., Hamedon, T. R., Juni, M., Afiah, N., Zulkefli, M., & Saliluddin, S. (2018). Factors associated with awareness, knowledge and attitude towards prostate cancer among Malay men in traditional Malay villages, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 14, 31-38.

Kabore, F. A., Kambou, T., Zango, B., & Ouédraogo, A. (2013). Knowledge and Awareness of Prostate Cancer Among the General Public in Burkina Faso. Journal of Cancer Education, 29(1), 69–73.

Merriel, S. W., Funston, G., & Hamilton, W. (2018). Prostate cancer in primary care. Advances in Therapy, 35(9), 1285-94.

Mincey, K., Turner, B., Anderson, K., Maurice, S., Neal, R., & White, C. (2017). Prostate Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs in Black College Men: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Community Health, 42, 1096-1101.

Mofolo, N., Betshu, O., Kenna, O., Koroma, S., Lebeko, T., Claassen, F. M. and Joubert, G. (2015). Knowledge of prostate cancer among males attending a urology clinic, a South African study. Springerplus, 4(67).

Mohammad Fadhil Hafiz, M. S., Soon, L. K., Azlina, Y. (2016). Knowledge, awareness and perception towards prostate cancer among male public staffs in kelantan. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences, 3 (6), 105-115.

Nakandi, H., Kirabo, M., Semugabo, C., Kittengo, A., Kitayimbwa, P., Kalungi, S., & Maena, J. (2013). Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan men regarding prostate cancer. African journal of urology: the official journal of the Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association (PAUSA), 19(4), 165–170.

Ogunsanya, M. E., Brown, C. M., Odedina, F. T., Barner, J. C., Adedipe, T. B., & Corbell, B. (2017). Knowledge of Prostate Cancer and Screening Among Young Multiethnic Black Men. American journal of men's health, 11(4), 1008–1018.

Salinas, C. A., Tsodikov, A., Ishak-Howard, M., & Cooney, K. A. (2014). Prostate cancer in young men: an important clinical entity. Nature reviews. Urology, 11(6), 317–323.

Sutcliffe, S., & Colditz, G. A. (2013). Prostate cancer: is it time to expand the research focus to early-life exposures? Nature reviews. Cancer, 13(3), 208–518.

Yeboah-Asiamaha, B., Yirenya-Tawiah, D., Baafic, D., & Ackumey, M. M. (2017). Perceptions and knowledge about prostate cancer and attitudes towards prostate cancer screening among male teachers in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana. African Journal of Urology, 23, 184–191.

How to Cite
Goh, J. W., & Chang, C. T. (2022). Knowledge, Awareness, and Perceptions towards Prostate Cancer amongst Male UNIMAS Undergraduates. Trends in Undergraduate Research, 5(1), b15-20.
Medicine and Health Sciences