Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Leaf Extract of Morinda elliptica

  • HENRY YUSUFU WAKAWA Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • JAMIMAH MOHAMMED MALGWI Midibbo Adama University Yola
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, bacterial strain, fungal strains, Morinda elliptica, zone of inhibition


This work was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Morinda elliptica by determining the zone of growth inhibition of the leaf extract against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Antifungal and antibacterial properties of the extract at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 μg/ml) were investigated after successive maceration in four solvents in order of increasing polarity [hexane (180 g), dichloromethane (342 g), ethyl acetate (471 g), and methanol (384)]. The agar disc diffusion method was used against selected human bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus, and the antifungal activity of the extract against Aspergillus brasiliences and A. flavus. Zones of growth inhibition of the extract were then compared with the standard antibiotic chloramphenicol (500 μg/ml) for the antibacterial activity, and against nystatin (500 μg/ml) for antifungal activity. The result of the study showed a remarkable bactericidal activity of the plant extract against the test organisms E. coli (14.667 + 0.577) and S. typhii (13.667 + 0.577) with a weak activity against the growth of S. aureus as compared to standard (21.667 + 0.577) at 500 μg/ml. The result of the antifungal activity showed considerable activity of the plant extract against the growth of A. brasiliences (11 + 0.1000) and weak activity against the growth A. flavus at 500 μg/ml. The findings of the study indicated that the leaf extract of M. elliptica is a reservoir of bioactive compounds. The compounds can be useful in the development of new pharmaceutical products that can be effective against human pathogenic strains E. coli and S. typhii. This could serve as a lead for understanding a novel mechanism of action in future research activities.

Author Biographies

HENRY YUSUFU WAKAWA, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

PhD research student



Department of Chemistry, FSTS/FRST Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching, 94300 Kota Samarahan.



Ali, A.M., Ismail, N.H., Mackeen, M.M., Yazan, L.S., Mohammed, S.M., Ho, A.S.H. & Lajis, N.H. (2000). Antiviral, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of anthraquinones isolated from the roots of Morinda elliptica. Pharmaceutical Biology, 38(4): 298-301.

Apu, A.S., Muhit, M.A., Tareq, S.M., Pathan, H.A., Jamaludin, A.Y.M. & Ahmad, M. (2010). Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the leaves extract of Dillenia indica Linn. Journal of Young Pharmacological Research, 2(1): 50-53.

Boyan, B., James, H. & Judicael, P. (2008). Principles of accessing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics using agar diffusion method. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(6): 1295-1301.

Daljit, S.A. & Jasleen, K. (1999). Antimicrobial activities of spices. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 12(3): 257-262.

Fransworth, N.R. (1993). Ethnopharmacology and future drug development: The North American experience. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 38(2-3): 145-152.

Gayathri, N., Gopalakrishnan, M. & Sekar, T. (2016). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. International Journal of Advance Pharmacology, 5(1): 12-20. DOI:10.7439/ijap.v5i1.3025

Houghton, P.J. (1995). The role of plants in traditional medicine and current therapy. Journal of Alternative Complimentary Medicine, 1(2): 131-143.

Ismail, N.H., Alias, A. & Osman, C.P. (2000). Alkaloids and anthraquinones from Malaysian flora. In Rao, V. (Ed.) Phytochemicals- A Global Perspective of Their Role in Nutrition and Health. IntechcOpen. pp. 287-306.

Leonjang, K., Daunginda, D., Phonopaichit, S., Sawangiaroen, N., Rattanabasi, S. & Mahabusaraham, W. (2015). A new anthraquinones from Morinda elliptica. Natural Product Research, 2(l9): 1833-1838.

Maria, D.C.S., Helber, B.C., Patricia, M.B.F., Jose, A.V. & Debora, D.M. (2016). Antifungal activity of plant extract with potential to control plant pathogen in pineapple. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 6(1): 26-31.

Morimoto, S., Nonaka, G., Chen, R. & Nishioka, I. (1998). Tannins and related compounds. LXI.: Isolation and structures of novel bi- and triflavanoids from the leaves of Cassia fistula L. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 36(1): 39-47.

Nayan, R.B. & Shukla, V.J. (2011). Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula L.: An ethnomedicinal plant. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 2(2): 104-109.

Prashanth, K.V., Neelam, S.C., Harish, P. & Rajani, M. (2006). Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 107(2): 182-188.

Reddy, P.S., Jamil, K. & Madhusudhan, P. (2001). Antibacterial activity of isolates from Piper longum and Taxus baccata. Pharmaceutical Biology, 39(3): 236-238.

Runyoro, D., Matee, M., Olipa, N., Joseph, C. & Mbwambo, H. (2006). Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-candida activity. BMC Complimentary Alternative Medicine, 6: 87-93.

Sandeep, S. & Abhilasha, M. (2018). Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of isolated constituents from areal part of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 11(3): 191-193.

Shahidi, B.A. (2004). Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Iranian medicinal plants against Micrococcus luteus, Serratia marcescen, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchoseptica. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(1): 82-86.

Sinulingga, S.E., Hasibuan, P.A. & Suryanto, D. (2018). Antibacterial activity of Karamunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk) leaf extract and fractions. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 11(3): 163-165.

Srikaran, R. & Salika, S.D. (2019). Evaluation of in vitro anti-urollithiatic activity of methanolic extract of Cucumis melo seeds on calcium oxalate crystals. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 1(1): 18-20.

Srinivasan, D., Sangeetha, N., Suresh, T. & Lakshmana, P.P. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 74(3): 217-220.

Vimala, S., Mohd, I.A., Abdull, R.A. & Rohana, S. (2003). Natural antioxidants: Piper sarmentosum (Kadok) and Morinda elliptica (Mengkudu). Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 9(1): 41-51.

West, B.J., Palmer, S.K., Deng, S. & Palu, A.K. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of an iridoid rich extract from Morinda citrifolia fruit. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(1): 52-54.

How to Cite
HENRY YUSUFU WAKAWA, FASIHUDDIN BADRUDDIN AHMAD, SALE MUSA PUKUMA, HENRY BULAMA, & JAMIMAH MOHAMMED MALGWI. (2022). Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Leaf Extract of Morinda elliptica. Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology, 12(2), 96-100.