Minimum Effective Dose of Chlorantraniliprole and Chromafenozide to Control Oil Palm Bunch Moth Tirathana mundella Walker

  • PATRICIA JIE HUNG KING Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia; Institut Ekosains Borneo, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Nyabau Road, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • CHONG MING SU Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • YEE MIN KWAN Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • ZAKRY FITRI AB AZIZ Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • KIAN HUAT ONG Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
Keywords: Chlorantraniliprole, Chromafenozide, Tirathaba mundella


The bunch moth, Tirathaba mundella is one of the leading pests in oil palm estates established on peatland. Severely infested male inflorescences usually would fail reaching anthesis. Reduction in the number of inflorescences at anthesis stage would suggest less food source and breeding ground for oil palm pollinating weevils, Elaeidobius kamerunicus, thus, affecting the fruiting percentage of oil palm and its yield. Despite to be less detrimental to the environment, biopesticide usages in the field is losing favour due to its slower rate of kill compared with conventional chemical pesticides, shorter persistence in the environment and susceptibility to unfavourable environmental conditions. The use of high host specificity chemical pesticides, such as chlorantraniliprole and chromafenozide are gaining popularity in pest management regimes. In this study, the optimum dose for chlorantraniliprole and chromafenozide in controlling T. mundella was assessed to provide valuable information for sustainable oil palm pest management. Several dosages of pesticide were evaluated for their effectiveness against T. mundella in a 7-year-old oil palm estate for six months.   Based on the results obtained, application of 30 g or 40 g active ingredient (a.i.) per ha chlorantraniliprole were recommended to provide the longest protection period. To make plan for an effective pest management that could reduce material and labour cost per ha as well as the risks in developing pesticide resistance among pest, 30 g a.i per ha of chlorantraniliprole is recommended to be rotated with 25 g a.i. per ha chromafenozide for a total of four rounds in a year.


Adriana, M. (2003). Environmental fate of indoxacarb. Retrieved March 4, 2021, from

Ahmed, K.S., El-Bermawy, S.M., Ismael, E.H., Abdel-Gawwad, R.M. & Saleh, T.A. (2015). Histopathological effects of diflubenzuron and chromafenozide (IGRs) on egg development in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research, 1(4): 147-153.

Axel, D., Kristin, E.B., Niels, M.F. & Michael, D.W. (2009). Chlorantraniliprole (Rynaxypyr): A novel DuPontTM insecticide with low toxicity and low risk for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombas terrestris) providing excellent tools for uses in integrated pest management. In Oomen, P.A. and Thompson, H.M. (eds). Proceedings from 10th International Symposium of the ICP-Bee Protection Group, 8-10 October 2008, Bucharest, Romania. Pp. 548-555.

Becker, N., Zgomba, M., Ludwig, M., Petric, D. & Rettich, F. (1992). Factors influencing the activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis treatments. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 8(3): 285-289.

Brugger, K.E. & Kannuck, R.M. (1997). Tier 1 environmental risk assessment of DPX- MP062 and competitive insecticides in the USA. Dupont Agricultural Products Document No. AMR 4635-97.

Chua, C.K., Ooi, K.E., Abdul, R.R., Paula, G.M. & Lee, K.L. (2010). Chlorantraniliprole: a novel insecticide for bagworm (Metisa plana) control in oil palm plantation. The Planter, 86(1009): 223-235.

Deepak, S., Eitan, B., Robert, M., Ze'ev, B., Sammy, B. & Arieh, Z. (2001). A UV tolerant mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki producing melanin. Current Microbiology, 44: 25-30.

Dunkle, R.L. & Shasha, B.S. (1989). Response of starch-encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis containing ultraviolet screens to sunlight. Environmental Entomology, 18(6): 1035-1041.

Ghoneim, K. & Tanani, M. (2017). Antifeedant activity and detrimental effects of ecdysteroid agonist chromafenozide on the food metabolic parameters of Schistocera gregaria (Forsk.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). International Journal of Entomology Research, 2(2): 6-16.

Gustavo, M.T., Senseman, S.A., Marchesan, E., Camargo, E.R., Jones, T. & McCauley, G. (2015). Residues of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole in rice grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(8): 2119-2126.

Hadi, M., Thomas, S., Swevers, L., Kostas, L., Nakagawa, Y. & Smagghe, G. (2008). Non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonist chromafenozide: gene induction activity, cell proliferation inhibition and larvicidal activity. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 92(2): 70-76.

Lahm, G.P., Selby, T.P., Freudenberger, J.H., Stevenson, T.N., Myers, B.J., Seburyamo, G., Smith, B.K., Flexner, L., Clark, C.E. & Cordova, D. (2005). Insecticidal anthranilic diamides: a new class of potent ryanodine receptor activators. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 15(22): 4898-4906.

Lahm, G.P., Stevenson, T.M., Selby, T.P., Freudenberger, J.H., Cordova, D., Flexner, L., Bellin, C.A., Dubas, C.M., Smith, B.K., Hughes, K.A., Hollingshaus, J.G., Clark, C.E. & Berner, E.A. (2007). RynaxypyrTM: a new insecticidal athranilic diamides that acts as a potent and selective ryanodine receptor activator. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 17(22): 6274-6279.

Mikio, Y., Yoshihisa, T., Tetsuo, W. & Akiyoshi, K. (2006). Development of a novel lepidopteran insect control agent, chromafenozide. Journal of Pesticide Science, 31(2): 163-164.

Parthiban, P., Ravikumar, A. & Chinniah, C. (2016). Newer insecticidal molecules and their implication on pest management- eco-friendly insecticides for IPM. Advances in Life Sciences. 5(23): 10854-10859.

Saharul, A.M., Zulkefli, M., Ramle, Mohamad, M.R.S., Su, C.M., Siaw, T.C., Norman, K., Siti, R.A.A. & Siti, N.A. (2017). Biological agents and insecticides to control bunch moth, Tirathaba rufivena in oil palm estates in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 29(3): 323-332.

Saleh, T.A. & Abdel-Gawad, R.M. (2018). Electrophoretic and colorimetric pattern of protein and isozyme as reflex to diflubenzuron and chromafenozide treatments of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(3): 1651-1660.

Saxena, D., Smruti, P. & Guenther, S. (2010). Fate and effects in soil of cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis: influence of physicochemical and biological characteristics of soil. The Open Toxinology Journal, 3(1): 151-171.

Spomer, A.N., Kamble, S.T. & Siegfried, D.B. (2009). Bioavailability of chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb to eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in various soils. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(5): 1922-1927.

Su, C.M. (2016). Management of oil palm bunch moth (Tirathaba mundella Walker) in young mature oil palm plantation on peat soil in Sarawak, Malaysia. (Master thesis), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Su, C.M., King, J.H.P., Kwan, Y.M., Zakry, F.A. & Ong, K.H. (2020). Economic injury level of oil palm bunch moth, Tirathaba mundella Walker for pest management recommendations in oil palm production. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 33(1): 37-45.

Szpyrka, E., Matyaszek, A., & Slowik-Borowise, M. (2017). Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(13): 12128- 12135.

Temple, J.H., Pommireddy, P.L., Cook, D.R., Marcon, P. & Leonard, B.R. (2009). Susceptibility of selected lepidopteran pests to rynaxypyr, a novel insecticide. The Journal of Cotton Science, 13: 23-31.

Wing, K.D., Sacher, M.E., Kagaya, Y., Tsurubuchi, Y., Mulderig, L., Connair, M. & Schnee, M. (2000). Bioactivation and mode of action of the oxadiazine indoxacarb in insects. Crop Protection, 19(8-10): 537-545.

Yu, S.J. (2014). The toxicology and biochemistry of insecticides. Second Edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

How to Cite
KING, P. J. H., SU, C. M., KWAN, Y. M., AB AZIZ, Z. F., & ONG, K. H. (2021). Minimum Effective Dose of Chlorantraniliprole and Chromafenozide to Control Oil Palm Bunch Moth Tirathana mundella Walker. Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology, 11(1), 51-63.