A Lab Scale Study on the Effects of Waste Lubricating Oil to Red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. Juveniles

  • Ruhana Hassan
  • Sa'adiah Salim
  • Nurul Jannah Ismail
  • Abdul Razak Ismail
Keywords: waste lubricating oil, Oreochromis sp., behaviour, LC50


Waste lubricating oil is defined as used lubricating oil removed from internal combustion engines. Among the
sources of this chemical are vehicles, mining, agricultural, industrial and construction equipment. Rapid
industrialisation, urbanisation and increase in volume of transportation have increased environmental risks to
aquatic organisms and human health for example improper disposal of waste lubricating oil into environment
has affect human via bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes, besides direct impact on the aquatic
ecosystem. A lab scale study was conducted to determine the effect of waste lubricating oil on red tilapia
Oreochromis sp. juveniles. In this toxicity test, Oreochromis sp. juveniles were reared in a static system and
subjected to four different concentrations of waste lubricating oil (50 ml/L, 90 ml/L, 120 ml/L and 200 ml/L)
and observed for 96 hours. The lethal concentration, LC50 of waste lubricating oil in this study was 91.20 ml/L.
There was a significant difference in the effects of waste lubricating oil on the mortality rate of Oreochromis sp.
among treatments. Mortality of fish has strong positive correlation with concentration of waste lubricating oil
added to the tanks. Swimming performances of test fish were reduced after 24 hours exposure to waste oil
lubricants concentrations of 120 and 200 ml/L. Severe inflammation was observed on the kidney tissues of
exposed fish after 96 hours experiment. Overall, water temperature and dissolved oxygen values recorded during
toxicity test were constant and within the range for optimum values culturing tilapias. However mean pH value
decreased from 7.19 to 5.33 as the concentrations of waste lubricating oil increased. This study only involved
Oreochromis sp. juveniles as test fish; in future, study should also include other fish species. Findings reported
here is limited to lab scale study, therefore the actual effects of waste lubricating oil deposited in the wild
ecosystem is still unknown and need further investigations.


Agbogidi, O.M. (2010). Response of six cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp] to spent engine oil. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1 (6):139-142.

Amal, M.N.A. & Zamri, S.M. (2011). Streptococcosis in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 34(2):195-206.

Ayoola, S.O. & Alajabo, O.T. (2012). Acute toxicity and hispathological effects of engine oil on Black Jaw Tilapia, Sarotherodon melanotheron. American-Eurasian Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 4(1):48-55.

Ayoola, S.O., Oluwatoyin, S., & Akaeze, C.O. (2012). Genotoxic evaluation and toxicity of spent engine oil on Clarias gariepinus. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 6:133-141.


Elnady, M.A., Alkobaby, A.I., Salem, M.A., Mohamed, A.S., & Asran, B.M. (2010). Effect of fertilization and low quality feed on water quality dynamics and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of American Science, 6(10):1044-1054.

Emam, E.A. & Abeer, M.S. (2012). Refining of used lubricating oil, by solvent/clay and acid/clay-percolation processes. Journal of Science and Technology, 2(11):1034-1041.

Faizul, I., Sawal, H.A., & Shabiul, I. (2012). Design of intelligent SoC controller for engine oil sensing and monitoring system. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 5(3):70-77.


John, C.S. & David, O.C. (2009). The generation, use and disposal of waste crankcase oil in developing countries: A case for Kampla District, Uganda. Journal of Hazardous Material, 161(3): 835-841.


Khan, J.A. & Singh, S. (2011). Evaluation of oil degradation potential of Micrococcus varians. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2(4):75-80.

Lim, C.E. & Webster, C.D. (eds) (2006). Tilapia: biology, culture and nutrition. New York: Food Product Press.

Ling, T.Y. & Hong, K.S. (2012). Elementary statistics for sciences with SPSS. Kota Samarahan, Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

Maizatun, M. & Mariani, A. (2011). Protection of marine biodiversity from pollution: Legal strategies in Malaysia. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 1(4):276-281.


Mohammed, S.E. & Amal, M.I. (2009). Performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings II: influence of different water temperatures. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(3):301-309.

Moura, L.G.M., Assuncao, F.J.L., & Ramos, A.C.S. (2010). Recovery of used lubricant oils through adsorption of residues on solid surfaces. Brazilian Journal of Petroleum and Gas, 4(3):91-102.


Newman, M.C. & Unger, M.A. (2003). Fundamentals of ecotoxicology (2nd Ed). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

Njoku, K.L., Modupe, O.A., & Temitope, O.B. (2012). Effect of time of application of spent oil on the growth and performance of maize (Zea mays). African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6(1):67-71.


Rodrigues, R.V., Miranda-Filho, K.C., Gusmao, E.P., Moreira, C.B., Romano, L.A., & Sampaio, S.A. (2010). Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae. Science of the Total Environment, 408:2054-2059.


Sharifi, M., Sadeghi, Y. & Akarpour, M. (2007). Germination and growth of six plant species on contaminated soil with spent oil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(4):463-470.


Sloman, K.A., Wilson, R.W., & Balshine, S. (2006). Behaviour and physiology of fish. San Diego, California: Elsevier Academic Press.

Sigurd, O.H., Albert, K.I. & Sigurd, O.S. (2008). The effect of temperature and fish size on growth, feed intake, food conversation efficiency and stomach evacuation rate of Atlantic Salmon postsmolts. Journal of Aquaculture, 21:36-42.


Thongra-ar, W., Parkpian, P., & Tang, A. (2003). Toxicity of mercury to growth and survival of seabass larvae, Lates calcarifer and the modifying effects of salinity. Research Article in Science Asia, 29:209-219.


Ugwu, L.L.C., Ude E.F., Nwamba, H.O. & Chima, I.N. (2011). Effect of crude oil and some petroleum products on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (catfish: Claridae). Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 5(1):24-30.

How to Cite
Hassan, R., Salim, S., Ismail, N. J., & Ismail, A. R. (1). A Lab Scale Study on the Effects of Waste Lubricating Oil to Red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. Juveniles. Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology, 4(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.33736/bjrst.238.2014